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Vol. 21 -1998 

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W.Bro. Gordon L. Finbow 
Worshipful Master 

W.Bro. John F. Sutherland 

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W.Bro. GORDON L. W. FINBOW, Worshipful Master 
Huntsville, Ontario 

V. W.Bro. SAMUEL FORSYTHE, Secretary 

752 Hampton Court, Pickering, Ontario L1W 3M3 

(905) 831-2076 Fax (905) 831-7815 

sforsythe@sympatico. ca 

20 Fairview Crescent, Woodstock, Ont. N4S 6L1 

Phone (519) 537-2927 


Subject Page 


W.Bro. Gordon L. W. Finbow, W.M 3-4 

Annual Heritage Lodge Banquet Address 

When Truth Rushes Out — Fear; Ignorance; Superstition 
By M.W.Bro. Richard E. Fletcher 5 

A History of Union Lodge No. 118 G.RC. 

By R. W.Bro. W. Thomas Cober 15 

Review 1 by R. W.Bro. Albert A. Barker 24 

Review 2 by R.W Bro. Colin C. Heap 25 

Reverend James T. Dowling and His Work 

By Bro. Robert P. Woodland 26 

Review 1 by Bro. Raymond S. J. Daniels 47 

Review 2 by R. W.Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 49 

Responses 51 

Jacob's Ladder 

By V. W.Bro. G. Reginald Cooper 53 

Review by R. W.Bro. Jacob Pos 59 

Our Departed Brethren 61-62 

The Heritage Lodge Officers, Committee Chairmen 63 

The Heritage Lodge Past Masters 64 


The contributors to these Proceedings are alone 

responsible for the opinions expressed and also 

for the accuracy of the statements made therein, 

and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of 

The Heritage Lodge A.F. & A.M. No. 730 G.R.C. 

The oral presentation at meetings 
shall be restricted to 30 minutes 

Papers presented to the Lodge are printed in full in 
The Heritage Lodge Proceedings in November each year 


It is my pleasure, as Worshipftil Master, to write tliis preface to The 
Heritage Lodge Proceedings for the year 1998. 

Our Annual Banquet in January was a fine beginning. We were 
privileged to have as our speaker M.W.Bro. Richard E. Fletcher, Past 
Grand Master of Masons in Vermont and presently the Executive 
Secretary of tlie Masonic Service Association of Nortli America. He was 
botli entertaining and informative and there is much to think about in his 
talk. When Truth Rushes Out. 

This year a medallion was presented to each speaker as a tangible 
expression of our appreciation. It wasn't available in January, but we 
were able to present one to M.W.Bro. Fletcher in July at tlie Annual 
Communication of our Grand Lodge at Toronto. 

In March we were hosted by Union Lodge No. 228 G.R.C. in 
Schomberg where RW.Bro. Thomas Cober presented his paper What Are 
Our Roots? Tlie Schomberg area is rich in Masonic liistory and R.W.Bro. 
Cober shared his extensive knowledge with us. 

May 23"^ saw us in Uxbridge where we joined with Zeredatha Lodge 
No. 220 G.R.C. in presenting The Dowling Scrolls to the Masonic 
community and the public. Bro. Robert Woodland, Historian of 
Zeredatha Lodge, presented his paper Dowling and his Work. These 
scrolls, wliich are over a century old and in surprisingly good condition, 
covered more than half of the double-gym floor at Uxbridge Secondary 
School! Bro. Woodland's paper neatly tied together tlie artist, his scrolls, 
and the paintings within the Uxbridge Masonic Temple. 

On September 23^** we celebrated the twentieth birthday of The 
Heritage Lodge by recognizing our Charter Members at a dinner. At our 
regular meeting following, V. W.Bro. G. Reginald Cooper spoke to us on 
Jacob 's Ladder, turning our attention to the relationsliip between our 
Craft and Jacob's Ladder, with which we are all familiar. 

Being Worshipftil Master of The Heritage Lodge is an honour and 
a challenge. My thanks go out to you the Members for the opportunity 
you liave given me, and to tlie Past Masters and Officers who have given 
of their time, their experience, and their enthusiasm. 

Gordon L. W. Finbow, W.M. 



W.Bro. Finbow became a member of Unity Lodge No. 376, 
Huntsville, in 1976, becoming Worshipful Master in 1985. He is 
presently Chairman of the Board of Trustees. He joined The Heritage 
Lodge No. 730 in 1987 and became a member of the Black Creek 
Masonic Heritage Committee shortly tliereafter, then in 1992, an Officer 
of the Lodge. He is a member of the Barrie Sovereign Consistory. 

W.Bro. Finbow and his wife, Gwen, have two daughters, two sons 
and seven grandchildren. He retired in 1988 from teaching High School 
in Muskoka. He is a graduate of Waterloo Lutheran University. He sings 
with the Tri-City Gospel Chorus and is their Treasurer. He is President 
of District Six of the Retired Teachers of Ontario. Gordon enjoys 
photography, music and family activities. 




by M.W.Bro. Richard E. Fletcher 

Past Grand Master of Masons in Vermont 
Executive Secretary Masonic Service Association of North America 

Thirteenth Annual Heritage Lodge Banquet 

Friday, January 30'^ 1 998 

Scarborough Masonic Temple, Scarborough, Ontario 


Arthur Ward, by all descriptions, was a devout man whose life 
centered on his family and his church. He enjoyed sports, 
especially the Washington Redskins and the recreation-league 
exploits of his two sons. He was a retired supervisor of the Norfolk 
& Western Railway Co. (He was also a Freemason.) 

Arthur Ward was a founding member of the Westwood Hill 
Baptist Church. He turned the first spade of earth for the new 
sanctuary, which was under construction in April 1979, when he 
died of a heart attack while admiring the spring flowers blooming 
in his backyard. He was 64. 

In late April, 1996 five members of a Southern Baptist 
congregation in Kempsville (Westwood Hill Baptist Church) 
sensed the presence of a powerful evil on the grounds of their 
church. Guided, they said, by the hand of the Lord, and fortified by 
evenings of prayer, they sought its source. 

Their search took them to a memorial garden that was 
dedicated 1 7 years ago, on a plot of land between the old and new 
sanctuaries, to the memory of one of the church's founders, a good 
and spiritual man of whom no one can say an unkind word. 

The five set out, with their pastors, to remove what they 


believed to be occult symbols that were planted— wittingly or not— 
in the garden those many years ago. They tore down and burned 
a large wooden cross and a rosebush that had grown through it. 
They uprooted cobblestones they said had been placed in the 
design of evil symbols. They broke up benches, dug up bricks, tore 
out and set fire to the plants, a dogwood tree and anything else 
that grew upon that small plot of land. Then, according to church 
members, they reconsecrated the ground by sprinkling it with holy 

They did this, in the words of the pastor, to "reclaim that land 
for the Lord Jesus Christ. " All this was necessary, said some 
members, for the spiritual redemption of the church. Others said 
it was little more than vandalism with a tinge of pagan ritual. 

The placement of the paving stones, were deemed to be 
symbols of the Masonic Order, a secretive and frequently maligned 
brotherhood whose practices, according to the pastor, are rooted 
in the occult. That claim has dogged Freemasonry from its 
beginnings, and followers ardently deny it. 

On April 23, the Rev. Jess Jackson, two associate pastors and 
seven other church members removed everything from the Arthur 
S. Ward Memorial Garden. What would burn was burned, what 
would not was hauled off as trash. 

Then the stories began. Tales spread of church members being 
driven by nightmarish visions welling up from the ground of the 
garden. Sunday schoolers overheard the adults, and fear spread 
among children that bones or bodies were buried out there. 

(From tlie June 16, 1996, Virginia Pilot) 


Notice the important role eacii played in tlie story just related. 

First: Introduce foai— "Sensed a powerful evil on the grounds of their 

Second: Introduce Superstition-occult symbols, evil symbols, church 
members driven by nightmarish visions, fear spread among tlie children 
that bones or bodies were buried out there. 

Third: Use ignorance as the remedy-prey on peoples minds about 
the "evils of Freemasonry" to people who know nothing about the 



The plagues that challenge TRUTH! 

Following this action the family of Arthur Ward filed a lawsuit 
against the Church claiming damages for: 

Vandalism motivated by religious bias; 
Intentional infliction of emotional distress. 

The Judge has niled that tlie Church cannot liide beliind the First 
Amendment, i.e. Religious Freedom. Destruction of property is not so 
covered. Tlie problem will be under the law-can Ward's family prove it 
had some ownersliip interest in tlie memorial garden tliat was destroyed? 
And can tliey prove that the pastor and others intentionally caused them 
emotional distress? 

A despicable act, the more so because it was religiously motivated, 
may escape punishment or even worse responsibility and accountability 
by tlie perpetrators. 

Even though the story I have just shared with you sounds like 
something out of the middle ages, it actually occurred in April of 1996, 
witli tlie lawsuit ongoing at tlie present time. How on earth can people in 
this day and age reduce themselves to the level of fear, ignorance and 
superstition shown in tlie very act of what they did? Why does 
Freemasonry generate so much fear and hatred from groups who call 
themselves Cliristian? Wliile anti-Masonic activity is not always limited 
to Christians it certainly has its most ardent supporters within the 
extremist fringe of both the Catholic and Protestant faith. A feeling of 
hatred so deep that it permits its adherents to do anytliing to hurt 
Freemasomy and Uien rationalizes "my religious beliefs made me do it." 
It is almost a sad take-off on the old "Flip" Wilson character Geraldine. 
You remember when Geraldine did something naughty it was never her 
fault, tlie devil made her do it. And, we hear the same plaintive cry from 
anti-Masons. It is not their fault. God is making them do it. 

The first answer we must always give to people who attack us in this 
way is to say: God and Jesus do not require people to dishonor 
themselves by lying about or smearing others. That is an interpretation 
based solely on the beliefs of those who commit these horrible acts. 

The November 1997 issue of Charisma and Christian Life ran a story 
titled Unearthing the Mysteries of Freemasonry. 

With a subheading Most People Don't Realize That Masons Laid 
The Cornerstones For Public Buildings in Washington D. C and erected 


monuments to pagan Gods. Was this a harmless act or did it place our 
nation under a curse? 

The writer of tliis article, Mr. Ron Campbell also had a picture 
diagramed showing many of the monuments in Washington linked 
togetlier and if you drew Unes properly they could form a cofTm. He went 
on to say tliat all Masons must, of necessity, be buried East to West. Then 
he talked about a satanic conspiracy. In his words saying / can't help but 
wonder if Freemasonry—which is so full of pagan symbolism - is at least 
part of a satanic plot. If so, it is a conspiracy I believe we can expose 
and conquer through prayer.'' He also says: ''The Compasses and Square, 
an emblem ofien seen in Masonic art and engraving, represents ancient 
pagan solar deities. Men initiated into Freemasonry's 32° are not told 
that the syinbol depicts Osiris the Sun—God and Isis, the "Goddess of a 
thousand names. " 

(Note: Mr. Campbell is, as all anti-Masonic writers are, caught up 
in the trap of tlie liigher the degree the more important it is. They are 
fascinated by tlie Scottish Rite and most of their quotes come from Albert 
Pike or Albert Mackey.) 

Another interesting observation he makes is: 

Freemasons are taught that they are like stones cemented into a 
mystical temple that the Masonic God known as "the Great Architect of 
the Universe ", is building. For this reason those who request a Masonic 
funeral are buried lying East to West, wearing a Masonic Apron. 

He gives as his reason for attacking Freemasonry: Six years ago, 
after asking God to show me what was blocking a full release of spiritual 
revival in this country (the United States) I began to study Freemasonry. 
I visited Masonic Libraries and Lodges around the world and 
interviewed A^asonic leaders and former Lodge members. 

Nowhere in the article does Mr. Campbell share witli us who tliese 
leaders were tliat he interviewed nor does he ever mention what Masonic 
Libraries he visited. For example the story he wrote in Charisma is 
centered around the House of tlie Temple, Supreme Council, Scottish 
Rite,' Southern Jurisdiction located in Washington, D.C.. The House of 
the Temple has a library in excess of 190,000 volumes witli one of tlie 
largest collections of Robert Bums outside of Scotland. That Library is 
never mentioned in tlie article. 

Masonic leaders referred to in the article and quoted to some extent 
are Albert Pike and Albert Mackey and since botli of tliese men died in 
the late 1800s it must have made an interesting interview. 



He tlien goes on confusing Freemasonry with Egyptology because he 
saw statues in the House of the Temple that were from Egyptian History 
and assumed that we must, of course, worship those statues. The 
magazine Charisma is, to the best that we can find out, a reputable 
magazine. Wliy tliey chose to pubhsh such an article, we don't know. We 
have responded but we have no real hope that the response written by S. 
Brent Morris will be published. 

I could go on for hours with the linking of Freemasons to the New 
World Order. In fact Richard Cohen wrote a column in tlie Washington 
Post quoting from Pat Robertson's book The New World Order saying:/^ 
is reported that in Frankfurt Jews for the first time were admitted to the 
order of Freemasons, Robertson wrote, continuing, if indeed members of 
the Rothschild family or their closest associates were polluted by the 
occultism of. . . Freemasonry, we may have discovered the link between 
the occult and the world of high finance. And he goes on to say, There 
is no hard evidence to prove it but it is my belief that John Wilkes Booth, 
the man who assassinated Lincoln, was in the employ of European 

Richard Cohen says; WJiat strikes me about such nonsense is the 
disturbing familiarity. Conspiracy theories about the Freemasons have 
been around since 1717 when the first Grand Lodge was founded in 
England. Freemasonry differed from place to place, but since the 
organization was secret and, even more important, since it was 
hospitable to freethinkers and the occasional Jew, it drew the wrath of 
established religion and secular authorities. 

In July of this year Freemasons, at least in the United States, were 
treated to a nonsensical quote fi*om a man named Eugene Patron. He was 
interviewed shortly after tlie death of Andrew Cunanan and said; It's like, 
here we go again, describing gay bars as dark and seedy, like we're some 
sort of Masonic group plotting and planning and doing weird ritual You 
can imagine the response that quote got. 

Jolm Salvi who was convicted of killing two abortion clinic workers 
in Massachusetts said in 1995, while in prison: ""Why do the Freemasons 
persecute the Catholics? Because they are good at it. The Catholic 
Church is dealing with a group of people who are intelligent, mean, 
nasty and judicious. These individuals run society and have a good 
system for themselves but seek to keep the Catholic Church from printing 
a currency and having the same system ..." 

Please imderstand, it is not my intent to be deliberately negative with 



you but simply to point out tliat, whetlier we like it or not, fear, ignorance 
and superstition are still three of the world's greatest evils. Even tliough 
the quotes used by many anti-Masons have been proven to be outright 
falsehoods, we always have to remember, lies have a life of their own. 
The Protocols Of The Elders of lion is still one of the most quoted 
documents on die face of the earth from tliose who are anti-Semitic. It is 
a proven forgery but it is a lie that will not die. The same is true in 
Freemasonry. We have those who are determined to destroy our 

An interesting question that was posed to me recently was in an 
interview with i\\Q Arlington Star Telegram of Fort Worth, Texas. In a 
discussion about the Fraternity this question was asked me by the 
interviewer, " W7iv there is any need to be in the Masonic Fraternity since 
the things you do could be done within a church" 

It was my response that it is true many of the tilings Freemasons do 
could be done witliin a church. However llie church's main goal is to 
provide spiritual life to an individual and Freemasonry's goal is to 
perform "good works" thus making our contributions witliin our 
communities. In otlier words we respond to "life on earth" and the church 
responds by fulfilling our spiritual needs. 

He said, ''Well I still don't understand why you could not fulfill these 
needs through your church." My response was "You can but many people 
like to belong to other groups such as the Boy Scouts or the Girl Scouts 
or other youth groups, they like to belong to the P.T.A., they like to 
belong to professional organizations and many people feel that they have 
interests that go on outside of their church. It is felt by many that they 
need to associate with people outside their particular religious 
congregation. Freemasonry is one of those avenues where we can work 
with people from different faiths. " 

He said to me, "all of the organizations you have named are not 
being attacked the way Freemasonry is. There has to be something 
different about Freemasonry since you are subject to such attack. " 

Now tliis observation has to set one to thinking. It is my belief that 
those areas of concern to religious extremists that make it important, in 
their minds, to attack Freemasons are that we permit, not only permit but 
encourage thought, diversity and toleration. We are certainly tolerant 
because we allow members of different faiths to come together as equals. 
We certainly encourage diversity because we allow people from all walks 
of life and all professions into our membersliip and every Freemason is 



encouraged to think. The rigid beliefs and opinions of religious 
extremists do not permit any deviation from their "party line." 

Let me mention tlie claim made by many anti-Masons about the 
thorouglmess of tlie research tliey do in investigating Freemasonry. There 
are two basic types of research. Scientific and legal. Scientific research 
is an attempt to detennine facts no matter where they may lead and reach 
a conclusion based upon those facts. Legal research means that you have 
a preconceived opinion and now you are looking for decisions to support 
that opinion. Anti-Masons always perform legal research. They know 
what they want to find and will use anything they see in writing that 
attacks Freemasonry, sometimes even to the point of changing or leaving 
out words or entire plirases. Those attacks are often accompanied by 
purification plans. Purge the Freemasons and deny them any leadersliip 
role witliin the church or even the Christian faith. 

Concerning some of the quotes tliat are used from Albert Pike or 
Albert Mackey my response would be tliis: 

One hundred years ago many things were thought to be true that 
are no longer valid. For example the church was very slow in 
condemning slavery and many quotes^ using Bible passages^ supporting 
slavery are embarrassing to the church today. Yet, no one seriously 
believes that the church still condones some of the opinions that could 
be extracted from its past. The same is true yvith Freemasonry. 
Regardless of what was written in the 1800s it has to be remembered 
that it was yvritten by an author who was expressing his own opinion. 
That does not make it a mandatory belief for anyone else and as has 
clearly been pointed out to church leaders none of these quotes are to 
be taken seriously today. The only one who would take them seriously 
would be someone who wanted to use them to attack our Fraternity. 

Wliat is happening is that religious extremists, both Protestant and 
Catholic, are waging a determined effort to smear Freemasons and to 
deprive tliem of tlieir character and good name. And quite frankly, in my 
opinion, it is liigli time tliose within the religious community who attack 
us were told tliis in no uncertain terms. 

ft is also important to remember that tliese vicious attacks are not 
always directed at Freemasons. There are equal opportunity hate groups 
like Cliick Publications of Encino, California, who delight in attacking 
any religious opinion differing from their own. We have in tlie office 
more tlian one hundred of the little comic strips they print. Many of you 
have seen the Curse of Baphomet which oftentimes is placed on the 



vvindsliields of cars during lodge meetings. They also have comic strips 
attacking the Catholic Church, the Mormons, the Cliristian Scientists, 
Jehovali's Witnesses, and many, many other groups. Hatred is not always 
confined to one group but usually is practiced against the group that is 
felt to be most vulnerable at tlie time. Freemasonry is perceived as being 
a secret organization and tlierefore, since we have never responded in the 
past, will calmly take whatever attacks come our way. 

Let me assure you such is no longer the case. I am going to leave 
with you tonight a copy of our February 1997 Short Talk Bulletin titled 
Masonic Information Center. Tliis Short Talk is the 1997 report of tlie 
activities of the Center to the Conference of Grand Masters of North 
America. Since many Masons do not have an opportunity to see such a 
report we are making it a Short Talk so more Freemasons will be aware 
of what we are doing at the Center. 

Also I would like to share with you some positive results from 
research into tlie Masonic Fraternity. You were given a definition of legal 
research a few minutes ago, let me now share two examples of scientific 
research. The noted author John Robinson wrote tliree books; Born in 
Blood, Dungeon Fire and Sword, and A Pilgrims Path. A Pilgrims Path 
was liis tliird book. In it he said it would be the last book he would write 
as a non-Mason since liis research into the Masonic Fraternity had led 
him to conclude that Freemasons were the kind of people he wanted to 
be associated with. He petitioned a lodge, becoming a Mason just prior 
to his death in 1993. 

Dr. Gary Leazer worked for tlie Soutliem Baptist Convention and 
was assigned the task of investigating Freemasonry and making a report 
back to tlie Southern Baptist Convention. Since liis report was far more 
factual than the Convention could tolerate they rewrote his conclusions 
so he removed liis name fi"om the report. But Dr. Gary Leazer concluded 
that his research had led liim to realize Freemasons were good people 
and he wanted to be one and he is now a Freemason in the state of 

When we wrote a letter of protest to the Associated Press because of 
the Eugene Patron quote that I shared with you fearlier, the Associated 
Press responded by saying Although it was never our intention to 
disparage your organization in any way, I can fully understand your 
displeasure at the reference. The quote by the Miami Herald Columnist 
(Eugene Patron) was intended to draw an analogy between the attitudes 
that some in society used to hold regarding the Masons with attitudes 



that some hold today about homosexuals. However, we should have been 
more sensitive to the possibility that even quoting another party saying 
this could give offense. 

Although relations with the Catholic Church were not stressed in 
tliis paper, tlie following quote from the Rev. Joseph J. Gerry, Bishop of 
the Diocese of Portland, Maine, was made on November 22, 1997, to the 
Maine Lodge of Research. In his remarks Bishop Gerry said, in part; 
Given the historic distrust and antagonism in the Old World and in the 
New between Catholicism and the Masons, today marks an important 
step toward greater mutual understanding between us. I am happy to 
have a part to play in this dialogue. He further said: the dialogue 
initiated by my predecessor Bishop Gerety was a first step in what is no 
doubt a very long process of dialogue which the Catholic Church and the 
Masons in this state (Maine) and this country ha\>e only begun to 
experience. I trust that my remarks this morning will further that cause. 

Another extremely important quote that could be shared with you 
also came from tliat same meeting in which Brother Walter Macdougall, 
Grand Master of Maine said: There is no more suitable moment than this 
to confirm Freemasonry' s insistence on the importance of religion and 
the sacred mission of the churches. Freemasonry understands that it is 
not a religion. It teaches that each individual must find faith and 
inspiration in the religion of his or her choice. The saving of souls, the 
doctrines of theology, and the sacraments of worship belong to the 
sacred mission of the churches. 

The most important contribution we can make to Freemasonry is to 
become well informed about our Fraternity. To have enough basic and 
general knowledge to respond to our critics and to explain Freemasonry 
to our famihes, our friends, our business acquaintances, and our spiritual 
leaders. To be able to talk intelligently about Freemasonry is a critical 
issue we must face and prepare for. 

Taking advantage of Masonic libraries, of materials available 
through Grand Lodges, of materials available through various national 
Masonic organizations, and seeing that these materials are available in 
our lodges, not only for the new Masons but for present members as well, 
is so critically important that it cannot be over-emphasized. We must 
become well informed about our Fraternity! 

We also must keep a positive attitude about Freemasonry and 
remember tliat an organization tliat has been around since the 1700s witli 
a \vritten liistoiy and, as we all know, a history and tradition long before 



that, does not need defending; but it does need explaining. 

A positive attitude about Freemasonry is so important that it too 
cannot be over-emphasized. We need to maintain the kind of attitude 
expressed in a quote I am going to share with you. 

Is flag wrapping all our military means to us? Personally, I prefer 
William Manchester's description of the Marines from liis book 
Controversy. He writes: 

That Marines are cocky is no news to anyone who has observed a 
stiff neck rising insolently from a standing blue collar. What is not 
understood is that to them attitude is a weapon. 

Because he was convinced tliat he was still a tough old bird, General 
Arcllibald Henderson, aged seventy-four, could saunter up to a Baltimore 
street mob's caimon in 1857 and scornfully turn the muzzle aside, giving 
the Marines behind liim a chance to overrun the gun. 

Because he held Spanish marksmanship in contempt, Sgt. Jolm 
Quick could chmb a ridge at Guantanamo Bay in the Spanish- American 
War, turn his broad back to enemy fire, and wigwag artillery signals to 
American gunboats. 

And "Chesty" Puller; because he was a swashbuckler, could lead the 
first Marines tlu"ough six attacking Chinese divisions after sweeping tlie 
frozen landscape with liis field glasses at Chosin and announcing loudly: 

Well we've got the enemy on our right flaj^k, our left 
flank, in front of us, and behind us . . . 

They won't get away this time! 



A History of Union Lodge No. 118 G.R.C. 

by R.W.Bro. Thomas Cober 

Schomberg Masonic Temple, Schomberg, Ontario 

Wednesday, March 18*^ 1998 


• When did we begin to meet as Brother Masons? 

• Was the Village ofLloydtown the location where 
we first began to meet? 

• Why are we located in the Village of Schomberg now? 


On September 13, 1759, the Battle on the Plains of Abraham 
commenced in Quebec City. On September 18, 1759, Quebec City 
surrendered to the British Forces. Several of the British regiments had 
lodges attached to them and on November 28, 1759, representatives of 
six lodges met and constituted themselves into a Provincial Grand Lodge. 
Five lodges were working under Irish authority and one under a warrant 
from tlie English Provincial Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (Modems) 

.The first meeting of tlie Ancient Lodges in Quebec was in 1785 
where part of tlie Fourth Battalion of the Royal Artillery was stationed. 

During the next 33 years of existence the Provincial Grand Lodge 
of Quebec estabUshed or extended its authority over some 54 new lodges, 
some witli travelling warrants (mostly military lodges) in places such as 
Detroit (Union Lodge No. 1, and it remained British until 1796), Fort 
Niagara, Cataraqui (Kingston), Micliilimackinac, Cornwall (Union 
Lodge No. 9. P.R.Q. 1792), and York (Toronto}, Rawdon Lodge No. 13 
P.R.Q., to name a few. 

When the Colony of New France became British by the Treaty of 
Paris on February 10, 1763, Ontario was sparsely settled. There were a 
few French traders, tliree more or less ruined forts at the sites of 
Kingston, Toronto (York) and on the American side of the Niagara 
River, as well as a small settlement along tlie Detroit River. Basically this 
vast region was trackless forest and wilderness occupied by Indians. 

In 1791 tlie Constitutional Act divided Canada politically into Upper 



and Lower Canada, and Grand Lodge followed this pattern. On March 
7, 1792 it named H.R.H. Prince Edward as Provincial Grand Master for 
Lower Canada and William Jarvis as Provincial Grand Master for Upper 
Canada. Although both men were given the title Provincial Grand 
Master, Prince Edward was given the power to issue warrants for lodges, 
whereas Jarvis could only grant dispensations for the holding of lodges, 
wliich had to be confirmed by Grand Lodge witliin 12 months. 

Prince Edward, later Duke of Kent (1767-1830} the father of Queen 
Victoria, came to Canada in 1791. He received a warrant as Provincial 
Grand Master of Lower Canada from the Grand Lodge of England 
(Ancients) dated March 7, 1792. His prestige added to the lustre of the 
Ancients and most of the earlier Modem lodges died out. Some tliirty 
lodges were warranted under his P.G.M. and four were in Upper Canada 

Apart from attending tlie celebration of St. John's Day on December 
27, 1792, in the Freemason's Hall in Niagara, Jarvis rarely gave 
leadership or rarely participated in any of the craft's functions. 

In 1797 tlie seat of government for Upper Canada was moved from 
Niagara to York. Mr. Jarvis as a govermnent official (Provincial 
Secretary to John Graves Simcoe) consequently moved to York. He took 
with him his warrant as Provincial Grand Master This immediately 
created a problem for tliese enthusiastic brethren in the Niagara area, 
because they couldn't legally continue to act or meet. However, they did, 
and kept Mr. Jarvis informed of tlieir activities. In December, 1802, tlie 
Niagara brethren elected and installed Bro. George Forsyth as Provincial 
Grand Master to replace R.W.Bro. Jarvis, thus creating a Schismatic 
Grand Lodge in Niagara. Mr. Jarvis eventually called a Grand Lodge 
meeting in February 1804 at York to resolve the problem. He did little to 
resolve die differences tliat were created. He held no future meetings: and 
retained his title of Provincial Grand Master until his death in 1817. 'The 
War of 1812-1815 also created a major stmnbling block in addressing tlie 
Masonic problem. Tlie fonnation of the United Grand Lodge of England 
in 1813, had no immediate affect in Upper Canada. 

During and after the American Revolution (1776-1783) many 
Americans moved nortli into Canada. Of these new settlers many moved 
to the Niagara, Kingston and York areas. 

In 1787 the English purchased York Region from tlie Mississauga 
Indians, by tlie Toronto Purcliase Act, for 147 barrels of trade goods and 
97 gallons of rum. 

In 1794, Lt. Governor John Graves Simcoe began construction of a 
road nortli from Lake Ontario to Lake Simcoe. It was called Yonge Street 
after Sir George Young. 



By 1800, there were 20 residents in what is now called King 
Townsliip. King Township was named after Jolin King, a friend of 
Governor Jolin Graves Simcoe. Tliis was tlie same year Mr. Stegman 
surveyed the area, making Yonge Street King Township's eastern 
boundary and mapping out the area in 12 concessions east to west, each 
V/a miles wide and sideroads VA miles apart, starting south from 
Vaughan and going north to Simcoe County. 

The Quakers from Vermont, Pennsylvania, were among tlie first 
settlers in King Township. One of their first settlements was near 
Newmarket-where their first meeting house (1810) still stands today. 

When tlie non-militant Quakers of Bucks County, Pennsylvania 
refiised to take part in the American War of independence in 1775 and 
again in the War of 1812, they fled to Upper Canada. They usually 
travelled by covered wagon through miles and miles of wilderness. By 
1812, William Lloyd and liis family settled in King Township near 

The Lloyd family travelled west and in 1813 settled in Lloydtown on 
a fann. Jesse Lloyd son of William Lloyd, was bom in 1786 and at the 
age of 27 married Phoebe Crossley, age 14. They had 14 children. 
Phoebe Lloyd (Crossley) lived to tlie age of 89. The Lloyds built tlie first 
sawmill in King Townsliip, and by 1826 also built tlie first gristmill. Men 
would walk miles, with bags of grain on their shoulders, to be ground at 
the Lloyd mill. (100 barrels of flour each day.) 

Lloydtown, named after the Lloyds was a place of note for King 
Township, and also York Region. It was one of the biggest centres north 
of York (Toronto). It was located on the west branch of Uie HoUand- 
Schomberg River. By approximately 1830 it had a sawmill, a gristmill, 
tliree hotels, several general stores, a shop, three blacksmiths, two shoe 
shops, two cooperages a woollen mill, two churches, a tinsmitli shop, a 
distillery and an armoury drill hall. 

In 1837 the first post office in King Township was established. 
Lloydtown received mail three times a week, by horseback from Toronto. 

In 1820 William Lyon Mackenzie (Little Rebel) a Scotsman, came 
to Canada. Many of the residents of Lloydtown were sympatlietic to 
Mackenzie's position of opposing the governing of Upper Canada by the 
Family Compact. They also wanted reform— the right to elect Uieir own 
representatives/officials, similar to our Masonic administrative problems. 

In December 1837 men from Lloydtown along witli Jesse Lloyd, one 
of Mackenzie's cliief associates, marched down Yonge Street to 
Montgomery's Tavern (two blocks north of Eglinton) on Yonge Street in 
York. They were met by the military— unfortunately no discussions were 



held, a battle erupted and Mackenzie and his followers fled. One man 
was executed, another shot, and Jesse Lloyd had a $500 price on his 
head. As a result, he fled to the U.S.A. Jesse longed for his family, liis 
home, and the country he loved. He died in the U.S.A., broken-hearted 
and with a fever in 1839 at the age of 53. 

Western Light Lodge No. 18 PR. received its warrant from Simon 
McGilhvray, Provincial Grand Master of the Province of Upper Canada 
on September 23, 1822 at York. 

Western LiglU Lodge No. 18 P.R. held its first communication in tlie 
year 1822 in the Inn of Nathaniel Gamble, Lot 90, First Concession, 
King Township, midway between Aurora and Newmarket, now known 
as Yonge Street. Bro. Jacob Haan was its first Worsliipfiil Master serving 
for two years (1822 and 1823). He also represented Western Light Lodge 
at the Provincial Meeting in York in 1822. 

Western Light Lodge No. 18 P.R. moved to Wliitchurch Townsliip 
near Newmarket (tlie exact location is not known). After a short time it 
was moved again to Pennville, in Uie Township of Tecmnseh, County 
Simcoe. Pennville is located five miles nortli of Schomberg. 

In the year 1823 we find the lodge had moved to Lloydtown, 
Township of King, County of York. Lloydtown was an outstanding 
community in business and in social activities. In the year 1835, Western 
Light Lodge was represented by our Junior Deacon at the third Provincial 
Grand Lodge Communications. 

About the year 1836, a number of brethren who had joined the lodge 
at Lloydtown moved to Vaughan Township, York County and affiliated 
with the Riclunond Lodge of Richmond Hill (March 2, 1824). 

Because of tlie political situation in Upper Canada, the Rebellion of 
1837, and the William Morgan incident (a bricklayer in Batavia, New 
York), Masonry declined drastically. Simon MacGillivray Grand Master 
(2nd) died June 9, 1840. Western Light Lodge moved back to Pennville 
during these trying years at Lloydtown (1837-1846). 

In 1847 the lodge returned to Lloydtown. The meeting place was a 
hall over Jolmson's General Store. On November 18, 1846 Bro. Soloman 
H.W. Stogliil, a Past Master of tlie lodge, was appointed a Grand Steward 
of the Tliird Provincial Grand Lodge. He was initiated in Freeholdt 
Lodge No. 29, New York, U.S.A. He worked on the Erie Canal before 
coming to Lloydtown where he was employed as a tanner. He affiliated 
witli Western Light Lodge at Lloydtown in 1832. During the years 1852 
and 1853, a number of citizens of Bolton and vicinity became members 
of the Lloydtown lodge, i.e. William Graham, merchant, Robert Dick, 
farmer, Thomas Swinnerton, Justice of tlie Peace, Thomas C. Prosser, 



land surveyor, Wm. Gardhouse, merchant, etc 

In the year 1854, owing to considerable membership in the Bolton 
District, the lodge transferred to Bolton, Albion Township. 

The Western Liglit Lxxige of Bolton, held their regular meetings the 
1st Wednesday on or before tlie full moon. It was renumbered No. 7 
(originally No. 18 Lloydtown). It surrendered its warrant in 1867. 

The Western Liglu Lxxige banner has an honoured place in the East 
in True Blue Lodge No. 98 (March 5, 1858) in Bolton. The inscription 
on the banner reads: No. 7 Provincial, Albion, Canada West. 

Western Light No. 7 was erased from the roll in 1857 and tlie 
warrant returned to London, England due to some irregularities. In 1858 
it worked for a short time under dispensation and was later granted No. 
13 on tlie roll of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

UNION LODGE A.F. & AM. No. 118 G.R.C. 

Union Lodge is one of the oldest in the coimnunity following that of 
True Blue No. 98, Bolton and Vaughan No. 54, Maple. It was first 
inaugurated in 1859 by special dispensation. Its first home was in tlie 
Village of Lloydtown, at the time tlie centre of activity in tliis part of tlie 
Count of York. The charter members of Union Lodge No. 118 were all 
fomier members of Western Liglit Lodge No. 7 and No. 18, with only one 
exception. The names of the Charter members are as follows V.W.Bro. 
Thomas Swinnerton, Bro. John Anderson, Bro. John T. Raper, Bro. 
Andrew Sloan, Bro. Henry McCabe, Bro. James Hunter; V.W.Bro. 
Soloman, Bro. H.W. Stogdill, Bro. John Robinson, all from Western 
Light Lodge, and Bro. D. J. Fountain from True Blue Lodge No. 98, 

On April 30, 1860, tlie Lodge received its charter. The Grand Master 
at tliat time was M.W.Bro. Thomas D. Harrington. The Lodge remained 
in Lloydtown from 1859 to 1870. 

Lloydtown was a thriving community. It had its own post office, fall 
fair,, hotels, several merchants, saw, grist and woollen mills, drill hall, 
tannery, etc. Its population was about 500. King Townsliip had about 
6,000 residents by 1860. Lloydtown was named after Wm. Lloyd, son 
Jesse Lloyd and tlieir families. We have had, and still do have, a direct 
descendant of Jesse Lloyd as Lodge member-my brother-in-law Grant 

We have in our possession, a copy of one of tlie first Bibles used in 
the Lodge While Ye Have Light, Believe In The Light, printed in 1861 in 
Pliiladelphia, U.S.A.. In addition, we have the Guest Book, Ledger, and 
Minutes dating back to the 1870s. In our Lodge safe, we also have a 



a scrapbook containing many interesting letters, notes, bills, receipts and 
the dispensation from Grand Master T. Douglas Harrington, 1863, letters 
of application, etc. 

1) Brief lodge minutes, Monday, November 7, 1859. 

2) Social invitation to Union Lodge No. 1 1 8, from Western Light 
Lodge No. 13, dated December 10, 1860, Bolton. 

3) Letter to Western Liglit Lodge re a request for $32.00 to help buy 
a horse for their Worshipful Master, February, 1861. 

4) Union Lodge bill, November 3, 1862. 

5) Letter from Grand Master, June 13, 1863. 

6) Lodge bill for rent, February 6, 1865 

I860 1885 1910 1935 1960 1985 1998 

Initiation Fees 

$1.00 $8.00 $15.00 $30.00 $50.00 $150.00 $250.00 
Annual Dues 

$0.25 $2.00 $3.00 $5.00 $10.00 $50.00 $95.00 

By 1870 the Village of Lloydtown was declining in population and 
activity, and the Village of Schomberg, one mile east, was rapidly 
establishing itself due to the fact that it was located on Concession No. 
9 of King, which was becoming a major transportation route to York. A 
new Post Office was established in 1862, plus several new stores, inills, 
hotels, fairgrounds, fanners market, blacksmith shop and bank was in 
operation. In 1902 a rail line connected Schomberg to Oak Ridges and 
Toronto. Tlie lodge's first home in Schomberg was in Mr. Harvey Isaac's 
Hotel in the central part of town where the old firehall is located today. 

On March 1, 1880, the brethren purchased the Wesleyan Methodist 
Church in Schomberg for $500. The building was later moved across the 
street and south to its present location. Its membership was 17 and the 
Worsliipftil Master was Arthur Armstrong Jr. In 1891, we read a report 
of M.W.Bro. J. Ross Robertson's visit to Union Lodge No. 118 in the 
morning of February 20, 1891. The lodge room was very comfortable, 
well filled, and the bretlu-en listened witli pleasure and deep attention to 
the Grand Master's lecture. 

One observes in looking back over lodge activities, that we were 
never over-blessed with funds. However, when a just cause arose, or a 
brother or family was in need, we were always able to do our part. For 
instance, a contribution was made to the Semi-centennial Fund and also 
to the Memorial Benevolent Fund in 1929-30 to the value of $225. 
Regular contributions to the "Sick Kids Hospital" are recorded, as well 
as local and district projects. 

On September 7, 1960, we celebrated our 100th anniversary. At this 
time we welcomed many Masonic Brethren throughout oiu^ Toronto 



District No. 7, and we were enriched by the attendance of our esteemed 
friend, M.W.Bro. Clarence MacLeod Pitts, Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of Canada. After tlie program in the Lodge, receiving of guests, 
introduction of tlie Grand Master, tlie presentation of the Volmue of the 
Sacred Law, a short memorial service, presentation of memorial bequests 
and the re-dedication of the lodge, a response on behalf of tlie lodge by 
W.Bro. C. Marcliant, tlie lodge was closed and the Bretliren retired to the 
Schomberg Town Hall for a delicious banquet, stately prepared by the 
members wives. 

Under tlie chairmanship of W.Bro. Norman Weir, the brethren were 
given an inspiring message from the Grand Master, a short history of 
Union Lodge No. 1 18 G.R.C. by V. W.Bro. Wilfred Aitcheson and some 
entertainment. The occasion was truly a memorable one for tlie guests, 
and especially the officers and members of Union Lodge. 

At a general lodge meeting in April 1981, called by W.Bro Albert 
Baker, W.M., discussion focused on appointing a chairman to organize 
a committee to prepare plans for our 125th anniversary. W.Bro. Thomas 
Cober was elected chairman for this special occasion. 

W.Bro. Thomas Cober met with the brethren of Union Lodge and 
discussed at lengtli plans to restore tlie lodge building and plan activities 
for the anniversary to be celebrated on May 4, 1985. Over the next four 
years the brethren worked diligently, and with much skill at such 
activities as: (1) installing new weeping tiles around tlie basement walls 
to eliminate water in tlie basement; (2) parge and seal the basement 
walls; (3) upgrade tlie electrical wiring; (4) install new boards and 
batting in the exterior walls; (5) install new eaves, soffit and fascia; (6) 
interior: refinish tlie wainscotting, paint, wallpaper, carpet tlie floor, 
replace the ftimace and install air-conditioning; (7) finish tlie basement 
to include a new wasliroom (which was completed in 1988 when a new 
sewage system was installed in Schomberg). 

.We are delighted to report that all renovations and improvements, 
costing well over $15,000, were completed and paid-for, through tlie 
assistance, co-operation, skill and dedication of tlie brethren of Union 

On May 4, 1985, we celebrated our 125th Anniversary. At tliat time 
we welcomed many Masonic bretliren tliroughout Toronto District 7, 
brethren from Union Lodges in Detroit, U.S.A., London, Grimsby, 
Markham, Brooklin and Napanee. We were also favoured by tlie 
attendance of RW.Bro. Jolm F. Crumb, D.D.G.M. Toronto District No.7 
and M.W.Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of 
Canada A.F. & A.M. in tlie Province of Ontario. 



The Worshipful Master, W.Bro. Jolrn Cober of Union Lodge No. 118 
G.RC. received guests, introduced Grand Lodge officers, R. W.Bro. Jolin 
F. Crumb, D.D.G.M. Toronto District 7 and M. W.Bro. Ronald E. 
Groshaw, and welcomed all bretlu^en into our Lodge. Greetings and a 
brief message was given by our Master. W.Bro. Thomas Cober presented 
a brief history of Union Lodge, and outlined the activities for tlie 
weekend. The Saturday activities included visits during the morning to 
the McMichael Art Gallery in Kleinberg, Black Creek Pioneer Village, 
and Doug Palmer's farm, located just one sideroad west of Schomberg, 
to see the Carlsberg Horses and Wagon. That evening, tlie ladies and 
gentlemen were invited to attend a fonnal banquet, followed by 
entertaimnent and a dance at tlie Nobleton Coimnunity Centre. Chainuan 
W Bro. Thomas Cober introduced tlie head table guests including tlie 
Grand Master, M. W.Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw and his wife Barbara, and 
welcomed our guests numbering approximately 350. After Grace and the 
regular toasts, we were treated to a delicious banquet. R. W.Bro. John 
Agnew and V. W.Bro. Fred Alton favoured us witli some entertainment 
in song. We were favoured with a toucliing message from M. W.Bro. 
Ronald E. Grosliaw regarding our anniversary, and Masonry in general. 
A wonderful evening sociahzing, eating and dancing was enjoyed by all. 

The occasion was truly a memorable one for the guests, and 
especially the officers and members of Union Lodge. We sincerely thank 
members of Union Lodge for support in the planning; preparation and 
completion of tlie tasks for tliis special celebration, especially committee 
members R. W.Bro. John Agnew, V. W.Bro. Fred Alton, V. W.Bro. Jack 
Cober and W.Bro. Hank Cuttell for endless support and contributions. 

As one looks back and reflects on tlie beautiful liistory of Union 
Lodge 118 G.R.C., and now look forward to tlie challenges of tlie 21st 
century, we must ask ourselves tlie question. Is Masonry keeping abreast 
of the times? One tiling constant today is change, society is changing, but 
the principles of Freemasonry are constant. I tlierefore believe that we 
must cherish die past, and thereby, we will be the better enabled to meet 
the many and varied challenges of the future. 

Whence Come We?; Grand Lodge of Canada. A.F. & A.M., 1980. 
Records of Union Lodge No. 118G.R.C. Schomberg. 
Tweedsmuir History for Home and Country, Schomberg Branch, 1911 



REVIEW No. 1 — R.W.Bro. Albert A. Barker 

We appreciate the opportunity of reviewing the paper What Are Our 
Roots, A History of Union Lodge No. 118 presented by R.W.Bro. Cober. 

There can be no question that the roots of Union Lodge No. 1 18 are 
well distributed throughout a vast geograpliic area of our jurisdiction. 
Undoubtedly the diversity of its several previous locations has provided 
this lodge not only with character but a great perseverance. The many 
notable members over the history of this lodge have contributed their 
talents in providing strength and fortitude generation after generation. 

It would be of interest to expand on the early locations and exact 
buildings utilized in the moves of tliis lodge to Whitchurch, Pennville and 

We are told tliat in 1847 on one of its many moves to Lloydtown tliat 
tlie lodge met over Jolmson's (General) Store. Was tliis the location used 
on the previous stays of the lodge in this Community. 

Would tliere be any of the previous buildings used as a home for tliis 
lodge or its predecessor, Western Light Lodge, still in existence today and 
do any of them carry a Masonic designation i.e. plaques. 

It can be appreciated that during the period of 1864 to 1870 several 
agitations to move the lodge to centres such as Tottenham, Beeton, 
Alliston and Bond Head were considered, when many new members were 
situated in these communities. 

Certainly the move to transfer the lodge to Schomberg in 1870 was 
understandable as it was becoming a more progressive hamlet than 
Lloydtown in that era. 

Again we would liave expanded on the history of the first two homes 
of the lodge in Schomberg (Harry Isaac's Hotel and the Wesleyan 
Methodist Church). 

We must admire the confidence of the forefathers of this lodge who 
while numbering only 17 members purchased and moved this building in 
1880. A fitting tribute to them is tliat tlie structure has stood tlie test of 

There must be numerous stories to relate in regards to the fraternal 
gatherings with its sponsoring Lodge, Western Light Lodge No. 7 in 
Bolton, (i.e. the invitation to attend Western Light Lodge in Bolton in 
1860 for the purpose of having a first rate dinner also a chit chat and 
sharing some fine wines and liquors; hard liquor at the time was 30 cents 
a half gallon.) 

RW.Bro. Tliomas Cober is to he connnended on liis fine presentation 
of tlie liistory and roots of one of tlie earliest lodges in our Province, whose 
wandering past has provided a finn foundation for the ftiture. 



REVIEW No. 2 — by R.W.Bro. Colin C. Heap 

R.W.Bro. Cober has effectively higlilighted liis Lodge's origins, in 
particular, the Lloyd family and their association with the great Loyalist 
migration following tlie American revolution and The War of 1812. The 
contribution of the Quakers in settling tlie area is of great liistorical 
interest as their coimnunity grew from tlie handful mentioned, to over 
3,000 by the mid- 1820s, one of the largest settlements of Society of 
Friends, as they were known in Nortli America. 

The paragraphs concerning tlie attack on Montgomery's tavern by 
Jesse Lloyd, WiUiam Lyon Mackenzie and others is significant to Masons 
as one of tlie "volunteers" defending the tavern was John A. MacDonald. 
The decline of Masonry referred to following the this conflict may in part 
have been due to the fact that Masons fought on both sides and many 
were exiled to the U.S. 

R.W.Bro. Cober asks: What Are Our Roots?. His presentation 
illustrates how deep they are in tlie community and their close link to the 
social and political liistory of our country. 




by Bro. Robert P. Woodland 
Uxbridge Masonic Temple, Uxbridge, Ontario 

May 23^' 1998 


/ wish to acknowledge and express my appreciation to the following 
people for their valuable aid in providing source material, sourcing 
advice, background information, interpretive advice and other 
assistance in the preparation of this paper: Allan McGillivray, 
CumtorandD. Vanessa Peny of the Uxbtidge-Scott Museum, Roland 
Hudson, Bruce Beveridge, Joseph Davey, Paul Kett and Norman Meek 
ofZeredatha Lodge, A.F & A.M., No. 220 G.R.C. ; Sam Forsythe and 
Edmund Ralph of The Heritage Lodge, A.F. & A.M, No. 730 G.R.C. 



Freemasonry was well established in Ontario at the time Zeredatha 
Lodge received its Charter in 1870, tlie Grand Lodge of Canada having 
been estabhshed in 1859 with tlie agreement of tlie motlier Grand Lodge 
in England. Prior to 1869 tliere were a number of lodges in tlie area, and 
in that year a petition was presented to Grand Lodge requesting that a 
lodge be established in tlie Village of Uxbridge. 

Rev. James T. Dowling had already served as Baptist pastor in 
Uxbridge prior to that time, having been appointed in charge of the 
circuit in 1864, wliich included a station in Uxbridge, two in Scott 
Townsliip, and one in Port Perry. He resigned in 1868 and returned in 
1871, having in the interval l)een initiated into Masonry in Colbome 
Lodge No. 91 in 1868. 

I will explore in tliis paper, sometliing of W.Bro. Dowling's early 
life, liis ministerial career, his Masonic interest and contributions, and 
liis avocation as an artist. Discussion of liis art will concentrate on two 
particular groups of paintings which he did while serving in Uxbridge: 
namely a series of fourteen oil paintings which hang on the walls of the 
Zeredatha Lodge Room, and a set of about fifty great panoramic 
paintings known to us as The Dowling Scrolls. 




The Early Years 

They 'adn 't good regalia 

And their lodge was old and bare. 

But they knew their antient landmarks 

And kept 'em to a hair^^ — Rudyard Kipling 

Kipling may well liave been describing the beginning of Masonry in 
Uxbridge when he wrote tliose lines. It was many years before Zeredatlia 
Lodge had adequate regalia, and it was almost a century before it had a 
permanent home. 

Prior to 1869 there was no Masonic Lodge in the Village of 
Uxbridge. There were however, quite a number of Masons living in the 
immediate area and tliere were Lodges in existence in StouflVille, Prince 
Albert, Whitby, Brooklin, Aurora and Newmarket. Journeying to tliose 
lodges as some Masons must have done, was arduous and time- 
consuming. Transportation was either by train or by horse and buggy 
over sometimes impassable roads. The nearest Lodge at the time was 
Prince Albert Lodge No. 183 in Borelia, ten miles away by road. 

A petition for the establishment of a Lodge in Uxbridge was 
prepared and supported at first by Composite Lodge No. 30 in Whitby, 
but for some reason it was not finahzed and the brethren of Prince Albert 
Lodge recommended the proposal in June 1869, and a petition was duly 
signed under tlie seal of tliat Lodge by the Worshipful Master, W.Bro. 
James Emany and tlie Secretary, Bro. W. J. Trounce. Support was 
general across the District and Zeredatha's Charter was granted on July 
4, 1870, and it became No. 220 G.R.C.. The first Worshipful Master was 
Bro. G. H. Dartnell and the first Treasurer was one of the signers of the 
petition, Bro. W. J. Annand. The first meetings were held in Bro. 
Annand's hotel on Main Street North, which I believe is the site of the 
present Hobby Horse Arms. An item in the Uxbridge Journal of 
November 10, 1869 read: 

We understand that the Masonic Brethren have opened a lodge 

in this place. Meetings will be held at Annand's Hotel on 

Mondays, on or about the full moon in each month. 

There were no deacons, stewards or chaplain until 1888. It is 
interesting to note that W.Bro. Dartnell was elected D.D.G.M. in 1880 
and became the first Grand Lodge Officer to make an official visit to 
Zeredatlia. W.Bro. James T. Dowhng became tlie fifUi Worsliipfiil Master 
of Zeredatlia Lodge in 1875. 




The Youth and Young Man 

James T. Dowling was bom in Hamilton, Ontario, October 1835. His 
parents had iimnigrated from Scotland tlie previous year. In writing his 
autobiography, he adopted the nom-de plume "Nemo", which I have 
found, is a Greek word meaning a small grove of trees. Dowling was a 
self-effacing man who was reluctant to "blow his own horn". 

He grew up under the dual religious influences of his parents' 
Presbyterianism and the Anglican Sunday School he attended, it being 
the only one in the area at the time. He became strongly opposed to 
alcohol early in life, being exposed to the effects of its abuse on soldiers 
stationed in the region during and after the 1837 Rebellion, as well as 
some school teachers, and his own father sometimes used it as an escape 
from liis problems. As a result he became a very active proponent of tlie 
Temperance movement. 

James' father died suddenly in 1842, and his mother was forced to go 
out to work. She was employed as housekeeper for a retired businessman 
who had an extensive library. The boy developed a variety of interests, 
particularly in nature study and became well-read as tlie result of his 
access to these books. At the age of twelve he became acquainted witli a 
visiting artist who encouraged his latent talent and developed in him a 
lifelong interest in art. He developed this talent throughout his youth, 
despite a lack of money for materials, and became an accomplished, self- 
taught artist. His mother's faith and teaching plus his attentive listening 
to many talented preachers also developed in James an interest in Bible 

He quit school at tlie age of 15 and went to work in a machine shop, 
where he became a talented draftsman. But he found tlie work arduous 
and at age seventeen he earned a "common school" teacliing certificate 
and taught school for a time. Some aspects of that work also disagreed 
wiUi liim, particularly enforcing discipline. He then put his love of art to 
practical use, working in ornamental art and coaching children. 



The Artist 

James Dowling was moderately successful as an artist, at least to the 
extent that his work was respected and admired in tlie circles where he 
moved, which were limited to rural and small town communities in 
soutliern and later, western Ontario. He evidently sold many works, for 
he supported liimself tlirougli liis art during his five years' preparation for 
the ministry. He also supplemented his income as a clergyman with the 
sale of liis paintings. Some people were surprised to find a ''man of the 
cloth" witli such artistic talent. There were those too in liis congregation, 
who thought it somehow unfit for a minister to engage in art as a 
commercial enterprise. Nemo argued that liis talent was God-given and 
felt that he could use it to God's glory. Many of his transactions were 
probably tlirough barter, which was common during tlie period. For 
example, his friend and physician in Colbome, Dr. Thorbum, never 
charged him fees but ''did receive. . . many prime examples of Nemo's 

He donated some of his work to individuals and organizations, such 
as Masonic Lodges that he belonged to. Others were commissioned or 
given as an appreciation for kindnesses or services rendered. The 
fourteen paintings lianging in Zeredatlia Lodge represent botli categories. 
They were commissioned by Zeredatlia Lodge and painted by Dowling 
during liis second stay in Uxbridge, between 1871 and 1878. There are 
similar examples in other Masonic Lodges such as Colbome Lodge No. 
91 in Colbome and Stirling Lodge No. 69 in Stirling, where he had also 
held membersliip, as well as in Trent Lodge No. 38, Trenton and Craig 
Lodge No. 401 in Deseronto. Some of these works are charts and Tracing 

Several of liis major works were produced as aids to liis own 
activities, such as lus Panorama of 40 Scenes of Biblical Work produced 
in Uxbridge as illustrations for a series of lectures on Biblical Antiquity. 
He produced other panoramas to illustrate lectures on The Vision of 
Creation and Voices from Stories. We do not know wliat became of tliem. 
Rev. Dowling was forced by tlie poverty-like condition of liis life as a 
clergyman in nineteenth-century rural Ontario, to take all tlie orders for 
painting he could get in order to support his gro\ving family. While in 
Uxbridge he also served as Drawing Master for tlie Uxbridge and Port 
Perry schools. At one point during tliis period tlie demand for liis art was 
so great, that togetlier witli liis otlier work and problems, he was tempted 
to resign liis ministry. He was obliged to continue painting all tlirough 
his career, as a means of support. This carried on into liis forced 
retirement in the late 1890s, and up to his death in 1913. 



The Clergyman 

James Dowling's strong faith and early religious training brought 
him into contact witli many people connected to tlie Cluistian church and 
its ministry. An Anglican priest is reported to have aided liim to further 
his education. In his late teens, Nemo developed a friendship with a 
"pious" Baptist deacon, which led to his embracing tliat faith and being 
baptized in 1854. Although feeling inadequate and fearing the 
responsibilities of tlie ministry, he was persuaded by his pastor and 
friends, and encouraged by his mother, to train for that profession. This 
he did over a five-year period, while serving as supply preacher around 
the Niagara District. He was ordained as a Baptist Minister in 1859, at 
the age of 24. 

While serving in Colborne, Rev. Dowling married the daughter of 
a prominent Baptist from tiie nearby hamlet of Vemonville. They moved 
soon afterward to Lundy's Lane, where he served as Pastor of Niagara 
District. He was called to Uxbridge in 1864 to take over the mission 
church tliere. He helped develop a Union Sunday School witli other local 
churches, and assisted in organizing a church at Port Perry, wliich was 
part of liis circuit which also included Scott Townsliip and Gwillimbury. 
During liis term in Uxbridge he was appointed Superintendent of Public 
Schools. The Dowhngs' first two children were bom there as well. It was 
a rewarding mission for him. He drew large congregations and he and his 
wife's enthusiasm soon made them beloved by the people. 

After four years, discouraged over the loss of members who moved 
away, and mounting church debts, Rev. Dowling accepted a call to a 
larger, older church in Haldimand (Wicklow) in 1868. His charge there 
included tlie Townsliips of Seymor and Stirling. Some time later he 
learned Uiat liis successor in Uxbridge had not done so well there and left 
the congregation without a pastor. He returned to Uxbridge in 1871 and 
stayed for seven more years. 

In tlie meantime his congregation had suffered a significant loss of 
membersliip, Uiougli the town's population had increased and times were 
booming with tlie completion of tlie railroad. His workload increased 
with the task of rejuvenating his congregation, and he carried the 
additional burden of liis wife now in failing healtli. Times were still 
difficult for a rural clergyman with a growing family and he had to rely 
on liis art work again to supplement his income. It was during this period 
tliat he painted some of his major panoramas, working mostly at night by 
oil lantern, so as not to interfere with his pastoral work. At one point he 



was ready to quit due to overwork and other hardsliips, but his 
congregation buih him a new house as an inducement to stay. An article 
in tlie Uxbridge Times of May 23, 1878 reads: By special request, the 
Rev. J. T. Dowling will deliver an illustrated lecture entitled, voices from 
the Tabernacle, in the Ontario Hall in this village on the evening of 
Monday, June 3. 

In 1878, after a total of eleven years service to tlie area, Dowling 
again left Uxbridge, and moved to Stirling witli a salar>' sufficient to live 
upon". He regretted having to make the move, saying it was like leaving 
home".. Some time later, being three months beliind in his salary 
payment, he was again forced to take up his brushes and pallette and 
paint another panoramic series, which he connected to a previous set to 
illustrate more lectures. Another son was bom in Stirling, bringing his 
family to six children. 

Rev. Dowling was invited to participate in an anniversary service in 
Uxbridge in April 1882, where he renewed many valued friendsliips. 
Soon afterward he moved to Colbome, where he became fast friends with 
Dr. Thorbum, his family physician, whom he referred to as a kind and 
constant friend . . . a Christian gentleman and who, although not a 
Baptist, was a Mason. Dowling's life was still very difficult, with many 
small communities to serve, involving a great deal of travel over rough 
roads in all weathers, by horse and buggy and sleigh. He and liis wife 
both suffered from ill healtli while in Stirling and Colborne. 

In 1893, Dowling went to nortliem Manitoba for a short stay. He 
found conditions very difficult and trying up there, returned to Ontario 
that fall and again settled in Colbome. He made one more trip to 
Uxbridge that year to preach at an anniversary service. There is some 
evidence to indicate tliat he resided in Colbome until 1894 and possibly 
1897. Somewhere aroimd that time he accepted a call to Ingersoll in 
southwestern Ontario. He appeared to have been eased out of there after 
a short time and went to Woodstock. Soon afterward he was forced into 
retirement and stmggled for years in debt and poverty. 

He found some pastoral work in the oilfields of westem Ontario in 
1900 but resigned the following year because of what he cdXXod financial 
and religious neglect. He did supply work at Petrolia, Windsor and 
Samia, residing in Petrolia. 

He continued with his artwork as well between assignments, thus 
managing to eke out a meager living. He died at Petrolia in 1913 at tlie 
age pf 78. 



The Freemason 

James T. Dowling was initiated into Masonry on November 27, 1868 
in Colborne Lodge No. 91, Colborne, Ontario. He passed to tlie Second 
Degree on December 28, 1868, and was raised to a Master Mason on 
February 26, 1869. he was elected Chaplain in 1871 but resigned in June 
of tliat year, when he moved back to Uxbridge. Colborne Lodge presented 
him with a silver plate as a farewell gift. He affiliated with Zeredatlia 
Lodge No. 220 in Uxbridge in October 1871 and was elected Chaplain 
of Zeredatlia in 1872 and 1873. He became Senior Warden tlie following 
year and was elected Worsliipftil Master of Zeredatlia in 1875. He 
resigned when he left Uxbridge again in May 1878. W. Bro. Dowling's 
signature is still quite legible in Zeredatha's Tyler's Book for 1875. His 
presence in Lodge as Past Master is also recorded in tlie earliest Minutes 
of Zeredatlia extant, dated December 27, 1877. W.Bro. Dowling's value 
to tlie Lodge was recognized early on, as evidenced by tlie following item 
in the Uxbridge Journal, dated October 26, 1871: 

PRESENTATION. An interesting ceremony took place on Monday 
evening last at the regular meeting of Zeredatha Lodge, No. 220, 
G.R.C. For some time past it has been felt that some suitable 
recognition of the labours and services of the Rev. Mr. Dowling in 
connection with this Lodge were due to that gentleman. Accordingly, 
he' was made the recipient of a complimentary address and a purse 
of $30 on the evening above-mentioned The Rev. gentleman then 
made a feeling and suitable reply, thanking the donors for their 
generosity and warm-hearted address. 

It is interesting to note that during Rev. Dowling's second sojourn in 
Uxbridge, tlie railroad had been completed and it was not unusual for 
Masonic Brethren from as far away as Wliitby to come up to visit 
Zeredadia. On occasion, when tlie Lodge meeting or festivities ran a bit 
late, the conductor would hold the train until the bretliren returned. 

Upon moving to Stirling in 1878, W.Bro. Dowling affiliated with 
Stirling Lodge No. 69 in August of tliat year. He served as Chaplain there 
for several years and was made an Honourary Member. He affiliated witli 
Colborne Lodge No. 91 in 1883, serving as Chaplain there from 1884 to 
1894. He also served as District Chaplain for Prince Edward District in 
1891. He re-affiliated with Zeredatha Lodge No. 220 in 1908 and 
remained a member until his death in 1913. Anotlier unfortunate effect 
of Dowling's financial difiBculties over the years was his suspension from 
both Zeredatlia and Colborne Lodges for non-payment of dues. 




The Masonic Perspective 

While in Colbome, Rev. Dowling became quite ill and was unable 
to afford tlie needed medical help. Members of Colbome Lodge provided 
the financial aid to restore liim to health. As a means of thanking them, 
he painted tliree pictures or charts which were hung in tlieir Lodge and 
used as Tracing Boards. This is one example of the Masonic association 
witli much of liis art. Many of liis paintings hang in various lodge rooms, 
while others are in private homes. 

The notes which follow are my own interpretation of the fourteen 
paintings with Masonic themes, which were probably painted by W.Bro. 
Dowling during tlie 1870s for Zeredatlia Lodge, and now hang on tlie 
walls of its lodge room. The paintings themselves were varnished over 
some years ago by a zealous member of Zeredatha, to preserve tliem. 
Unfortimately tliis turned them quite dark over time. The Lodge has had 
some restoration work done and many of tlie paintings are now improved. 
These notes are based on my own limited knowledge and research of the 
subject matter, and I take sole responsibility for them. They are included 
here as references to the primary segment of Dowling's Masonic related 
artwork. I have inserted a few sample reproductions of tlie paintings 


1 . The female figures shown in the first painting are believed to 
represent the Four Cardinal Virtues: Temperance (the wine in the goblet 
symbolizes restraint in prosperity); Fortitude (the shield and armour 
symbolizes arming the soul against adversity); Prudence (the spyglass 
shows a clear perception witli a view to the fiiture, the mirror symbolizes 
reflection before important decisions); and Justice (with its balance, 
indicates a rendering to each without distinction, tliat wliich is due. 
These symbols are believed to have been taken from the old Tliird 
Section of tlie Junior Warden's Lecture on the Tracing Board in tlie First 

2. The veiled figure shown here may be representative of tlie 
candidate not yet fully restored to light. The key with tlie letter "5^' on it, 
held to the mouth, represents the tongue as being the true key to a 
Mason's secrets, presumably held in the locked box shown. As far back 
as 1696, the Edinburgh Register House MS referred to a weel hung 
tongue as tlie key to their Lodge. The Volume of the Sacred Law in the 
margin, represents Trutli and Light, and it is on this volume, held sacred 



by Masons of all faitlis, tliat candidates take their solemn obligation. The 
Book of Constitution represents the landmarks, rules, ancient charges 
and fundamental principles of our Order. It also sets out tlie duties of our 
officers and the rights and privileges of members. Shown also is the 
Tyler's sword, which is carried in processions that include the Grand 
Master, symbohcally to protect the Book. The sword pointed at the heart 
is believed to represent one of tlie Points of Entry mentioned in the 
examination of a candidate for the Fellowcraft Degree, referring to the 
point of a sharp instrument extended to my naked left breast. 

3. The third painting depicts an angel holding a book and a scantily 
clad workman. It appears to represent tlie light of knowledge being 
imparted to the young man, probably an Entered Apprentice, from the 
book wliich may well be the Volume of tlie Sacred Law. Some working 
tools of a Mason are shown, including the compasses, gavel, chisel and 
24" gauge, some of tliem being tlie working tools of tlie Entered 
Apprentice. Tlie rule indicating admonition and instruction during each 
24-hour day; tlie gavel reminding him of tlie need for exertion in labour; 
and tlie chisel denoting perseverance to attain perfection. The tools and 
other symbols depicted in tlie margins of tlie painting show the 
implements involved in his initiation and progress in Masonry. The 
lambskin apron being his first gift, symbolizes innocence and purity. 

4. The next painting illustrates the seven liberal arts and sciences, 
viz. Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Logic, Music, Geometry and 
Astronomy, which are illustrated in the Fellowcraft Degree. We can see 
the symbols and implements of each one shown in the picture. The seven 
steps too are illustrated, symbolizing tlie seven officers who make a lodge 
perfect and the seven years it took King Solomon to complete and 
dedicate the Temple at Jerusalem. The celestial and terrestrial globes 
shown in the margin, are relatively recent to Masonry, as people in 
ancient times believed the earth to be flat. 

5. The fifth painting shows two male figures looking outward and 
upward, possibly to Heaven. The staff carried by one is in tlie form of a 
cross, which could represent early Christian mythology in Masonry, or 
it may have no particular significance other than the artist's own faith. 
The man on tlie right is holding a scroll wliich may represent building 
plans, as he also has in his hands a pencil and a skirrit, working tools of 
a Master Mason. The skirrit, symbohzes tlie straight and undeviating line 
of conduct laid down... in the Volume of the Sacred Law, while the pencil 
teaches us that our words and actions are observed and recorded by the 
Almighty Architect. Marginal symbols depict a tracing Board, Rough and 



Perfect Ashlars and V.O.S.L. apparently resting upon two staves, witliin 
which is contained what I consider to be The Point within a Circle. This 
is an ancient symbol of Creation, witli tlie first Man at tlie Centre. The 
Masonic symbol, as explained in the First Tracing Board, is the point 
from which a Master Mason cannot err. 

6. The next painting portrays Jacob's dream of the ladder going up 
into Heaven, with angels ascending and descending it, promising liim a 
numerous and happy posterity. The ladder has existed as a symbol of 
moral and intellectual progress from antiquity. Although in some cultures 
and faitlis tlie ladder contains seven rounds or steps, which it does in the 
Masonic Ladder of Kadosli, representing Jw^Z/ce, Equity, Kindness, Good 
Faith, Labour, Patience and Intelligence. However, from early times, tlie 
Masonic Ladder has only used three steps referring to tlie three 
theological virtues of Faith, Hope and Charity. In the margins are shown 
a tabernacle with incense apparently being burnt in tlie iimer sanctum; 
a golden globe over water, possibly representing the sun in tlie 
firmament; and people standing on a hilltop and in a deep valley. Tliis 
latter refers to Masonic Lodges traditionally meeting on the highest of 
hills and in the lowest of valleys (Old York Lectures) so that they could 
more easily see any intruders. The practice goes back to ancient Jewish 

7. The seventh painting shows tliree operative Masons at work, 
apparently preparing and cutting stones for building. In the upper left is 
the Master Mason, studying and interpreting the plans on the tracing 
board, with the aid of the compasses. Below him appears to be a device 
for checking the square of the stone's angles. To his right, the Fellow- 
craft holding a stone up with a crowbar and ftilcrum, drives a wedge in 
with the heavy mall to split the stone. Below we see the Entered 
Apprentice possibly learning about liis craft or perhaps some moral 
precepts from a book. Beside liim lie a setting mall and a 24-inch rule. 
The painting itself seems to represent tlie tliree degrees or stages in 
Masonic development.N.The illustrations in the margins are quite symbolic 
in Masonry. The beehive, long an emblem of industry, was common on 
tracing boards, lodge certificates etc. up to the mid-eighteenth century. 
An interpretation of die symbol from Thomas Smith Webb, an American 
Masonic ritualist states in part that as an emblem of industry, (it) 
recommends the practice of that virtue to all created beings,. ..that we 
should.. .never contented while our fellow-creatures... are in want. 
I have found no reference to incense burners, but there are Masonic 
references to Altars of Incense, on wliich the altars in many of our lodges 



are patterned. It is considered as tlie most holy place in the lodge, being 
tlie place where the candidate lays his passions and vices, and offers up 
thoughts of a pure heart to the Grand Architect of the Universe. The 
inclusion here of an ark and an anchor is emblematic oi 2i well-grounded 
hope and a well-spent life . . . of that divine ark which bears us over 
tempestuous seas; and the anchor that safely moors us in a peaceful 

8. Several Masonic symbols are represented in the eighth painting. 
The sheaf of wheat (otherwise called corn) suspended beside a waterfall 
is familiar to Masons as a symbol of Plenty. This is also signified by the 
word Shibboleth, an important word in tlie Fellowcraft degree ceremony, 
and symbolized here by the soldiers guarding access at tlie river. The 
cornucopia and vessels for oil and wine depicted in tlie margin also 
denote plenty, while the plumb-line in the upper right is also 
representative of the Fellowcraft. The large G at tlie bottom of course, is 
emblematic of The Grand Architect or Contriver of the Universe. 

9. 1 believe the key to the nintli painting, which shows four female 
figures with an infant around a cross, is the Mosaic pavement or carpet 
at the bottom. The First Lecture tells us that the Mosaic pavement points 
out the diversity of objects which. . . adorn the creation. The Blazing 
Star. . .refers us to the Sun. The Indented or Tesselated Border refers us 
to the Planets. Tliey are emblematic of the comforts and blessings which 
surroimd us, but tliey also remind us of the uncertainties of life. Note that 
tliis painting and tlie next one are quite different in size, colour and tone 
from the otliers in the room, and may have been done at a different time. 
The anchor symbolizes the hope of glory, or fulfilment of God's 
promises, wliile the cross is the Christian symbol of resurrection to a 
better life hereafter. The figures then, may represent Masonic widows 
and orphans, clinging to tlie symbols of tlieir faitli and hopes. 

10. Tlie next painting depicts five male figures above the Volume of 
the Sacred Law, with the square and the compasses witli both points 
visible. This may be a rather loose interpretation. I welcome alternative 
views on it as well on otlier paintings. As the VOSL shown here is 
representative of the Master Mason Degree, so the five figures may be 
symbolic of the Five Points of Fellowship in that degree. From tlie 
earliest known explanation of them in Three Distinct Knocks (1760), we 
may conclude tliat tlie kneeling man in the forefront is put (ting) forth my 
hand to serve my Brother. The one standing on tlie right, holding tlie 
lamp and parchment of knowledge and stepping forward is . . . never 
afraid to go a Foot out of my way to serve a Brother. Both figures in 



front are . . . kneel (ing) to say my Prayers, I ought. . . to pray for my 
Brother as well as myself. The left rear man leaning forward as to press 
liis breast to the other . . . is to show I will keep my Brother's secrets as 
my own. Finally, the middle-rear man has his arm over the other's back 
to show . . . that I will always be willing to support a Brother. 

11. Painting No. 1 1 shows what appear to be tlie Three Wise Men or 
Kings of the Orient witli their entourage, and a group of shepherds 
following what could be the Star of the East. I see no Masonic signifi- 
cance in this, and it may be strictly a Biblical theme, for Bro. Dowling 
was a Christian clergyman. The Blazing Star in the bottom margin 
represents the Sun . . . which dispenses its blessings to mankind. The 
Setting Maul in tlie upper left is a symbol of deatli by violence, wliile the 
trowel on tlie opposite side, represents the Master of the lodge, who is the 
cement which. . . binds the brethren together in peace and harmony. 

12. The tliree pillars shown in the twelftli painting represent tlie 
Wisdom of King Solomon, wliich contrived the fabric, tlie Strength of 
King Hiram's wealth and power which ''supported the undertaking'', and 
the Beauty of Hiram Abif s cunning workmanship which adorned it. 
These tliree pillars symbolically support the Lodge. We find in Three 
Distinct Knocks (1760) that the Wisdom Pillar represents the Master in 
the East, the Strength Pillar, the Senior Warden in the West, and tlie 
Beauty Pillar, the Junior Warden in tlie Soutli. The figure in tlie lower 
margin illustrates tlie symbol of Pythagoras' notable Theorem or Forty- 
seventh Proposition of Euclid wliich has been adopted as a significant 
symbol of Freemasonry. The working tools (skirrit, pencil and com- 
passes) of a Master Mason are shown in the upper margins, possibly as 
implements of tlie work being planned here by our three Grand Masters. 

13. Tlie five pillars which appear in the next painting represent the 
Five Noble Orders of Architecture referred to in tlie Lecture on the 
Tracing Board in the Second Degree. They are: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, 
Corinthian and Composite. These in turn are symbolic of the Five 
Officers who hold a Lodge, namely tlie Master, Senior and Junior 
Wardens and two Fellowcraft. Along witli this representation are shown 
in tlie margins, the working tools of a Fellowcraft: the square, which in 
speculative Masonry teaches morality: the level which teaches equality; 
and the plumb rule, which teaches us justness and uprightness. 

14. The scene in the last painting in this series shows a young man 
contemplating a book wliich is atop a broken column, emblematic of the 
deatli of our Grand Master Hiram Abif Behind liim stands the Angel of 
Death, with liis scythe and hourglass. The figures are standing on a 



platform atop three steps, perhaps symbolic of the tliree stages of life: 
youth, manliood and old age. I believe this scene to be symbolic of that 
part of tlie Third Degree ceremony, when the candidate is faced with his 
inevitable destiny. The scythe and the hourglass with wings are again 
depicted in the margin and symbolize the fleeting of time. In the lower 
margin we see a dove with a sprig of evergreen, reminding us of the 
inmiortality of the soul. 

There are examples of Cowling's art known to have been presented 
to other Masonic Lodges. Trent Lodge No. 38 in Trenton has a set of 
charts similar to those done for Colbome Lodge. Another set hangs in 
Craig Lodge No. 401 in Deseronto. This set may have been obtained 
through R.W.Bro. Rev. Robert Craig, the Lodge's first Worsliipful 
Master, who was a Presbyterian minister and Grand Chaplain at the time 
W.Bro. Dowling was District Chaplain, so they were likely acquainted. 

The Religious Perspective 

Much of Dowling's art had religious themes. As a Baptist Minister 
he made use of liis artistic ability to illustrate lectures he presented in 
various Ontario centres such as Cobourg, Uxbridge, Toronto, St. 
Catliarine's, Niagara Falls, Paris, Cliippewa, Thorold. He painted several 
sets of panoramic scenes on canvas, illustrating such topics as Biblical 
Antiquity, The Vision of Creation, Voices from the Tabernacle, Voices of 
Stories. He answered critics who questioned his artistic endeavors by 
arguing Tlie Lord gave me this talent andean I not use it in some way for 
His glory? 

One of tliese huge sets of panorama is in the custody of Zeredatha 
Lodge. It comprises about fifty scenes in all, some of tliem showing 
Biblical scenes and otliers depicting liistorical and mytliological scenes 
of ancient Greece and Rome and other lands of antiquity. The dimensions 
of these paintings, wliich are wound on two large wooden spools, are 
seven feet in height, with a total length of almost four hundred and fifty 
feet. They are known locally as The Dowling Scrolls, and have been 
publicly displayed several times. (Descriptive notes written by Rev. 
Dowling, together with sample reproductions, can be seen in tlie 

The Artistic Perspective 

From the viewpoint of artistic merit, this author is not qualified to 
pass judgment. I can say as a lover of art however, that tlie work of Rev. 
Dowhng which I liave seen certainly has artistic merit. It shows the years 
of self discipline in developing liis painting ability as well as his innate 



talent. Experience and maturity in the use of oils is evident. But what 
really stands out in liis local work is his extensive knowledge of Masonic 
heritage and symbolism, and of Scriptural liistory and mythology. 

Historical Perspective and Value 

Dowling's art has some historical significance in two respects. First 
is the actual content of some of his work, i.e. the liistorical and biblical 
scenes. However these may not be of much historical value due to the 
probability that he copied much of it from otlier works. Altliough some 
may have come from his own imagination; we may never know. We do 
know however, that he never travelled to the Holy Lands and other places 
shown in his paintings, so they were not done on site. 

The otlier aspect of liis art's liistorical value is its importance as part 
of tlie community's heritage. Rev. James Dowling spent a total of eleven 
years in Uie service of Uxbridge Baptist Church, the Public Schools, the 
Masonic Lodge and the community of Uxbridge generally. There are 
other works in other locales as previously mentioned. Here we are 
concerned with his work as it relates not only to Zeredatha Lodge in 
particular, but also to local religious and historical interests and the 
community as a whole. DowUng's art is something worth preserving, but 
it will require concern and effort on the part of community organizations 
to prevent its loss to the ravages of time and neglect. 


{Numbered according to photo designations) 
Autlior's Note: / lujve not made any editorial changes in the notes 
contained in this Appendix, although I have corrected typographical 
errors found in their transcription. I have tried to present them here 
Just as I believe Rev. Dowling had written them on the reverse side of 
his canvas, over ISO years ago. Some of the notes have become 
illegible, and I have attempted to identify those scenes. They are 
marked with an asterisk (*). Viewers opinions on such scenes would be 
welcomed. Iliave included a few sample black and white reproductions 
here, as well. 

1. BAALBEK An ancient centre of Baal worsliip, situated on a main 
caravan route from Tyre to Damascus. Greek architects and Rome's 
imperial builders made Baalbek one of the wonders of tlie Mediterranean 
world. Most imposing are the Temple of Bacchus with its 52-foot 
Corinthian columns, and tlie lofty Temple of Jupiter Hadad, six of whose 
54, columns, 60 feet liigh, remain as reminders of the Roman builders. 



!. Baalbek. An ancient centre of Baal worship 

2-3. DAMASCUS Capital of Syria, it is the worid's oldest city 
having continuous habitation. Damascus prospered under Greek and 
Roman control. The most important building in Damascus is the Great 
Mosque. Since the eightli century A.D., a Moslem slmne. It still shows 
above its soutli door tlie Greek inscription "Tliy kingdom is an everlasting 
kingdom, and Thy dominion endure th throughout all generations". 

'3-4. ANTIOCH On the Orontes River, 20 miles from the 
Mediterranean, it was once an inland seaport. It vas a melting pot of East 
and West with a bad moral reputation. Paul and Barnabas started their 
missionary journeys from here, thus making Antioch important in the 
development of the Christian church. 

5. PATMOS An Aegean island visited by Jolm the Evangelist 
(Rev. 1 : 9) and was the scene of his visions recorded in Revelations. 

6. SMYRNA An important Aegean port of Turkey, and seat of one 
of tlie "Seven churches that are in Asia" to whom the Book of Revelation 
was addressed. It was founded by tlie Greeks in the 12th century B.C. and 
had grown rich on trade between Asia and the West. 


































7-8. CORINTH Capital of the Roman Province of Achaia; 
refounded as a Roman colony by Julius Caesar (46 B.C.). Its matchless 
situation at tlie south end of the narrow isthmus connecting continental 
Europe with the Peloponnesus brought it wealth, accompanied by 
corruption, such as Paul denounced in his first Epistle to the Corinthians. 

8-9. EPHESUS One of the great cities of the eastern Mediter- 
ranean, it was a transportation junction between east and west. It was 
another city of Asia to which Paul brought his message of Cliristianity. 

10. ATHENS. A great world centre of learning and artistic attainment. 

10. ATHENS Beginning in 600 B.C., it quickly became a great 
world centre of learning and artistic attainment. The acropolis, a hill 500 
feet high, became a religious centre, with glorious temples dedicated to 
Athena, the city's patron goddess. During Paul's second missionary 
journey, he stayed many days in Alliens but was not successful in starting 
a church. 

11. ARCH OF SEPTIMUS SEVERUS The triumphal arch is 
characteristic of Roman arcliitecture. A triumphal arch is usually built 
after a great conquest. 



12. TEMPLE OF SATURN, ROME Saturn, the god of sowing or 
seed, was worshipped by the Romans and Greeks. The remains of his 
temple still dominate the west end of the Forum. It was the oldest 
recorded building in the Republic of Rome. 

12-13. COLOSSEUM An amphitheatre inaugurated by Titus in 
A.D. 80, it seated 40,000 to 50,000 persons. 

14. FESTIVAL OF SATURNALIA Originally held on December 
17, it was extended first to three, and eventually to seven days. The date 
has been connected witli tlie winter sowing season in Italy. All work and 
business were suspended. The streets were infected with a Mardi Gras 
madness. Presents were exchanged, principally wax candles. The 
influence of Satumaha upon die celebrations of Christmas and New Year 
has been direct. 

15-16. VESTAL VIRGINS Vesta was the Roman goddess of the 
heartli. The public worsliip of Vesta was in the care of the Vestal Virgins, 
whose obUgations involved keeping the sacred fire and maintaining their 
vow of chastity. 

17-18. BUILDING *The Great Pyramids. 

•19-20. TRADE 

20-21. ROMAN GENERAL Pubhus Cornelius Scipio planning his 

22-23. HANNIBAL A great Cartliiginian general, who attacked tlie 
Roman Empire through Spain and across the Alps with 40,000 troops 
and 38 elephants. He took the Romans by surprise and was able to 
capture much of nortliern Italy. His losses in men were great and he 
couldn't get supplies from Cartilage (Nortli Africa), and tlie Romans soon 
regained their territories and defeated Hannibal. 

24. THE VICTORIOUS GENERAL Returns in triumph. 

25-26. *BURNT OFFERING A multitude worships before the 
Altar as the High Priest offers a sacrifice. 

27-28. SAMARIA Situated on an easily defended hill and over- 
looking die cliief nortli-soudi trade route Uirough tlie liill country, tlie city 
of Samaria was Uie capital of the Northern Kingdom (Israel). Jesus often 
avoided Samaria because of its Hellenistic culture, its worldly 
materialism and its lack of concern for spiritual progress. Yet it is 
recorded (Luke 17:1 1-19) that in a Samaritan village, He cleansed ten 
lepers, one of whom came back to thank liim. 

29-30. DEAD SEA 46 miles long witli a maximum widtli of 9/2 
miles, it lias a mean depth of 1,200 feet, wliich makes it the lowest sheet 
of water in die world. Tlie sahne content of tlie water is five times greater 



than that of the oceans. No fish can exist in the Dead Sea. The edifice, 
apparently a temple, built into the cliff at the left of scene 30, has not 
been identified. 

3 1. * These are believed to be the temples built into the cliff face at 
Deir el-Bahri, in Egypt. 

32. * This could be a scene in the Negev Desert. 

33. * Possibly a small town on the Sea of Galilee. 

'34-35. * I believe tliis scene is tlie Columns of Necropolis at Dendare, 
from the Old Kingdom in Egypt. 

36. * These large stone figures are the Memnon Collossi at Thebes 
on the Nile: site of the Temple of Amenophis III. 

37. * 

38. * 

39. * I believe tliis is part of the core of Jerusalem, showing a section 
of tlie old cisterns, used for collecting water. 

39a. * A view of Jerusalem from a distance. 

40. JERUSALEM. A holy city for Christians, Jews and Moslems. 



40. JERUSALEM A holy city for Christians, Jews and Moslems. 
The Mount of Olives is in the foreground. The Dome of the Rock (at 
centre of the wall) is a seventh century Moslem shrine built on Mount 
Moriah, traditional site of Abraham's ofiering of Isaac. This sacred 
ceremonial rock was also the Holy of Holies in Solomon's and Herod's 
temples. Moslems today believe that at the judgement, God's tlirone will 
be located on tliis rock. To the right and beliind tlie Dome of tlie Rock 
can be seen the Church of tlie Holy Sepulclire. Tliis is tlie most liistoric 
shrine in Christendom, as it is built on the site of Calvary and adjacent 
to tlie garden of Joseph of Arimatliaea, in whose new tomb Jesus was 
laid. . 

41. VALLEY OF JEHOSOPHAT Tliis is part of the wide Kidron 
valley extending between tlie plateau where Jerusalem lies and the Mount 
of Ohves. Tliis valley is believed by many Christians, Moslems and Jews 
to be the site of tlie Last Judgement. (2 Cliron. 20) 

42-43. VALLEY OF HINNOM It hes soutli and west of Jerusalem. 
Tliis valley formed the boundary line between tlie territory of Judali and 
tliat of tlie tribe of Benjamin. It separates Mount Zion on its north from 
"Tlie Hill of Evil Counsel" and the Plain of Hephaim, west of Jerusalem. 

44. JERUSALEM DISTANT O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that killeth 
the prophets, and stoneth them that are sent unto her: How often would 
I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her 
chickens under her wings, and you would not. (Mattliew 23:37) 

45. JOPPA (JAFFA) Tliis city is situated on the Mediterranean 
Sea, 34 miles northwest of Jerusalem. (It is now part of the modem 
Jewish harbour city of Tel-Aviv, the first capital of the modem state of 
Israel). Until modem times, it lacked a safe breakwater in an adequate 
harbour for large slups. For centuries cargoes had to be "tendered" ashore 
in heavy skiffs; manipulated tlirough heavy surf by the famous Joppa 
boatmen, who chanted to the rhytlun of tlieir oars. 

Autlior's Note: Tlie senteftce in parentheses must have been added, 
as the State of Israel did not exist in Dowling's time. 

46-47. SHECHEM or NABLUS A city in the hill country of 
Ephraim, 4 1 miles nortli of Jemsalem. It was one of the chief cities of 
Canaan. Mount Gerizim, overlooking it, was called tlie "Navel of tlie 
land". It was the first place visited by Abraham, although it was 
associated primarily with the nortliem tribal heroes, Jacob and Joseph. 

47-48. LAKE TIBERIAS or SEA OF GALILEE A fresh-water 
lake in nortli Palestine and an integral part of the Jordan River waterway. 
Boats engaged in fisliing and transportation between the many lake towns 
around its shores. The demand for carpenters in sliipbuilding may have 



led Christ lo change liis residence from Nazareth to Capernaum. His 
close association with tlie sea made Jesus familiar with boats, navigation 
and fishing. 

49. NAZARETH. Childhood home of Jesus. 

49. NAZARETH Nazareth was the residence of Mary and Joseph 
when tJiey journeyed 85 miles south to Bethlehem for the Roman census. 
It was the childhood home of Jesus, where He received the religious 
training afforded by his home and synagogue. 

50-51. BETHLEHEM A city south of Jerusalem, overlooking a 
main higlnvay to Hebron and Egypt. A steep valley drops from the south 
side of Bethlehem's rock spine down to the Dead Sea. A walled town 
even in David's time, its substantially built houses along narrow streets, 
reveal how the prosperous settlement may have looked when Mary and 
Joseph applied for lodging at the over-crowded inn. 




Baines, John and Jaromir Malek. Atlas of Ancient 
Egypt. New York: Facts on Eile Inc., 1990. 
The Bible and King Solomon's Temple in Masonry. Ed. 
John Wesley Kelchner. Philadelpliia: A. J. Holman 
Co., 1951. 

Carlile, Richard. Manual of Freemasonry. London: 

William Reeves Booksellers Ltd., 1830. 

Carr, Harry. Freemasonry at Work. London, 1976. 

Dowling, James T., Handwritten Autobiography, 

Petrolia, Ont, 1912. 

Masonry Defined: A Liberal Masonic Education. Ed. 

E. R Jolmston. Kingsport Tn: National Masonic Press, 


McGillivray, Allan. The Churches of Uxbridge-Scott. 

Mount Albert, Ont., 1978. 

The Uxbridge Journal and Uxbridge Times-Journal. 

Uxbridge, Ont, 1871-1875, 1988. 

Whence Come We? Ed. Wallace McLeod. Hamilton, 

Ont.. Masonic Holdings, 1980. 



REVIEW No. 1 by Bro. Raymond S. J. Daniels 

Thoinas Carlyle, tlie nineteenth century Scottish essayist and social 
historian observed that History is the essence of innumerable 
biographies. We are much indebted to Bro. Woodland for providing this 
illuminating biograpliical sketch of tlie Reverend Bro. James T. Dowling. 

Any worthwhile project in liistorical research stimulates interest in 
the subject, animates curiosity in the student, inspires further study, and 
points the way to pursue supplementary inquiry. This paper is valuable 
both in the interesting information it provides and for the absorbing 
questions it raises. We are grateful to Bro. Woodland for providing us 
with a solid core of information. 

On a veiy simple level, we wonder about the mechanics of how tliese 
panoramic scrolls were employed: how they were physically displayed as 
visual aids illustrating the series of lectures on Biblical Antiquity. The 
village halls in which Bro. Dowling delivered the lectures were such as 
size that he must employed assistants to unroll tlie scenes as he spoke. 
How were the scenes lit for the audiences to enjoy during evening 
presentations before electrical lighting was available? 

We learn from Bro. Woodland's paper tliat after leaving Colbome 
in 1897 for Ingersoll, Woodstock, and Petrolia, Dowling continued with 
his artwork ... between assignments, thus managing to eke out a meagre 
living. In addition to tlie paintings catalogued by the paper in Zeredatha, 
Colborne, Stirling, Trent, and Craig Lodges, one wonders if furtlier 
examples of liis biblical illustrations or Masonic allegorical paintings 
await discovery in any of tlie Masonic lodges in soutliwestem Ontario— 
particularly Petrolia No. 194 and Wasliington No. 260, tlie lodges in 
Petrolia in the community where he resided during the last years of his 
life (1900-1913)? There may indeed be many more Masonic treasures- 
charts and tracing boards~yet to be brought to light. 

I was most fortunate to enlist tlie assistance of W.Bro. Richard E. 
Deichert, a Past Master of Petrolia Lodge No. 194, who has taken an 
interest in tlie subject. Tlie minutes of Petrolia Lodge record that the Rev. 
Bro. Dowling preached at a Divine Service held by the Lodge, and at liis 
death in 1913, the lodge conducted a Funeral Service for liim. W.Bro. 
Deichert has located W. Bro. Dowling 's grave in Hillsdale Cemetery, 
Petrolia (Section B, Lot 224), where his wife, Ann Lee Dowling (bom 
Niagara Falls, April 8, 1842, died Petrolia, September 22, 1914) and one 
son, Harry Lee Dowling (bom Stirling, August 19, 1879, died at Petrolia, 
April 24, 1904) are also buried. The paper notes that two cliildren were 
born during the first years in Uxbridge between 1864-1868, and that 



another son (presumably Harry Lee, named above) was bom in Stirling, 
bringing his family to six children. Bro. Deichert informs me tliat tlie 
name Dowling was known in Petroha as late as 1950. All of wliich raises 
another question. Are there any living descendants of our worthy 
brother? The Dowling House was situated at 4182/4186 Dufiferin Street 

It is a sobering and humbling to be reminded of tlie accomplishments 
tliat such men as W.Bro. Dowling achieved tlu^ough industry, persever- 
ance and diligence, earning for and by tliemselves tlie honourable title 
Self-educated Man". Although He quit school at the age of 15, his 
education continued, clearly demonstrating a distinction between process 
(schooling) and product (knowledge) often misunderstood in our day. He 
learned early in life tliat Once you can read, all worlds are open to you I 

In the decades bracketing the turn of the twentieth century (the 
culmination of Victorian period) men read voraciously and studied 
assiduously. In the cities and small towns of Ontario, The Mechanics 
Institute provided reading rooms, organized educational classes and 
sponsored weekly lectures for middle classes, working men, and 
intelligent mechanics. As an example The Harmsworth Self Educator: A 
Golden Key to Success in Life, edited by Arthur Mee and published in 
1906 shows a range and variety of topics that are astonishing in their 
comprehensive coverage. 

Finally it is intriguing to inquire into tlie choice of Zeredatha for the 
name of tliis venerable Lodge, and to speculate on tlie possibility tliat it 
may have been inspired by this scholarly and artistic pastor. W.Bro. 
Roland Hudson's history of the Lodge gives no liint as to the reason for 
the choice. Clearly, all Freemason's know the Biblical reference to 
Zeredatha made in the Senior Warden's Lecture in the Second Degree, 
and significantly, die Cliapter of Royal Arch Masons No. 135, warranted 
in 1904, in Uxbridge is denominated Succoth. 



REVIEW No. 2 by R.W.Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 

The story beliind the acknowledgment directed at me by Robert 
Woodland is that in the early eighties I started to research Rev. James 
Thomas Dowling. In my work I found in the Baptist Church Archives in 
Hamilton an autobiography which Dowling had written approximately 
one year before liis death. From my discussions with the Uxbridge 
museum curator Allan McGilvray in 1985, a copy of tlie autobiography 
was deposited in his collection in the event tliat someone else may want 
to follow up on him and of course Bro. Robert Woodland has done just 
that. I compliment him on the job that he has done in tliis paper, and I 
would recommend that the autobiography be included in liis bibliog- 
raphy, because someone may want to follow up on his paper. 

The first part of Robert Woodland's paper is about Dowling 
biograpliical details and tliis represents a good summary and I would like 
to make a few comments. Nemo is a Greek word meaning a small grove 
of trees. I think this was liis nom de plume for liis biography and not liis 
paintings. I recall tliat liis descendants who I interviewed did not know 
about tliis name. They informed me that it was liis practice to sign only 
the back of his paintings and I have yet to see this name on a painting. 

For purposes of emphasis I would like to bring out a few further 

Dowling says: Nemo (was) in preference to the frequent use of the 
pronoun which is not pleasant to myself— or my name which would be 
still less so, both securing at time to envoys of egotism. Dowling was a 
very modest, humble man. Dowling says my aim has been to be right— 
and especially, right with God. Dowling was a devout man. 

Dowling was not selfish, egotistical or superior. Dowling says / had 
to contend with every disadvantage: want of means, want of education, 
want of sympathy, want of unity within. Only the grace of God and deep 
conviction of the truth and supreme authority of God's word were the 
impelling forces to toil on with few and imperfect helpers. 

There is no doubt that Dowling and liis family lived in genteel 
poverty. This is worse than when a person acknowledges liis poverty. 
Wliat would Dowling have done if he did not have liis painting skills to 
rely on. He had a very deep faith. 

I fail to understand a church hierarchy that does not pay a man for 
six months, when liis annual salary to raise a family on was $300 per 
year. Did tlie Church liierarchy of the day approve of his involvement in 
Freemasonry? He writes . . . there were those who were quite ready to 
criticize the fact of his having become a Mason— yet he never found this 
fact interfering with his duties or with his spirituality. Further on he says 



he never found in tlie order (Masonic) anytliing tliat was detrimental to 
true moral or citizenship. Altliough Dowling was sent to Woodstock to 
teach in the Baptist college, I do not tliink the church hierarchy ever 
recognized him for what he accomplished in liis parish work. 

Reverend Dowling was suspended from Masonry for non-payment 
of dues. I do not understand the action of suspension in Dowling's case. 
I tliink we modem Masons can learn a lesson from tliis suspension when 
Dowling was such a believer in Masonry. 

On the subject of Dowling's Masonic career it should be pointed out 
tliat he was a Royal Arch Mason. When researcliing a Mason, the Grand 
Lodge records are an excellent source and every Mason is encouraged to 
use Oiem. My only hope is that the computerized records will contain tlie 
same detail as the hand written records. 

I am quite aware that Robert Woodland's paper confines itself only 
to Uxbridge and Zeredatha Lodge No. 220. But we should acknowledge 
he read that the significance of Dowling's contribution to Freemasonry 
in this jurisdiction is liis creation of tlie Masonic Tracing Boards tliat 
exist in some of the Lodges that have been referred to by Robert 
Woodland. It is not entirely the 480 foot scrolls we saw today. 

Mr. McGilvray confirms in a letter to me in 1985, tliat he had found 
smaller scrolls about 50' long and 4' high with tlie rollers still attached. 
I would be interested in knowing if Bro. Robert Woodland could tell us 
if these are still in existence. 

I should inform you tliat there were was anotlier set of about ten or 
twelve paintings with Dowling took with him to Pretrolia. I feel he 
considered them his best. These were as large as 18' x 20' and all 
religious themes. 

The second and third parts of the paper relates to the interpretation 
of the small paintings here in Zeredatha Lodge and tlie scrolls. I am 
really not able to comment on the symbolism or the interpretation of 
tliese paintings. I feel though that Bro. Robert Woodland deserves many 
accolades for liis detailed study and interpretation of them. From reading 
Bro. Woodland's description without the images, I believe that he is 
saying they are Masonic witli a religious background. I suspect that 
Dowling also mixed liis reUgious and Masonic lectures and in those days 
that was acceptable practice in Masonry. 

I congratulate Bro. Woodland on his paper and the knowledge he has 
given to us on Rev. Dowling, but as I said at the start it is an excellent 
study on a very talented and devoted man and Mason who gave 
generously of his talents to Masonry. 



RESPONSE — Review No. 1 

First of all, I want to express my appreciation to Bro. Raymond 
Daniels and R.W.Bro. Edmund Ralph for the generous and positive 
comments they made about my Paper, also for the helpful and 
informative suggestions they put forward. I just have a few remarks to 
make in response to them. 

Bro. Daniels wondered about the mechanics of the Dowliiig scrolls 
when taking them on a lecture tour. After he has seen them he may 
wonder even more, as we all do, for I believe I heard our W.M. Joe Davey 
ask on Monday night for about eight volunteers to move them from the 
lodge liall to tlie liigli school. Rev. Dowling must have had many helping 
hands. We have no record of any details of their handling them. 

There may well be some of Dowling's artwork in lodges of 
southwestern Ontario. However, my research was confined to the rural 
south-central area of the province. 

I am grateful for the additional biographical details provided by W. 
Bro. Richard E. Deichert. I believe that R.W.Bro. Edmund Ralph also 
has some knowledge of Dowling's descendants who were living in tlie 
Windsor area some years ago. 

As to his conjecture on the possibility of Bro. Dowling's influence on 
selecting the name for Zeredatha Lodge, I am somewhat dubious. Rev. 
Dowling had not yet become a Mason during his initial residence in 
Uxbridge (1864-68), but was initiated into Colbome Lodge No. 91 in 
November 1868, after leaving Uxbridge. 



RESPONSE — Review No. 2 

I admit to my oversight in failing to include Rev. Dowling's 
autobiography in my bibliography. I must have reasoned that it was 
unnecessary because it wasn't a published document. However it was a 
primary source for my material and will be included in the finished 

I thank Bro. Ralph for his definition of the term "Nemo". I confess 
to a lack of further research after failing to find it in two encyclopedias. 

Rev. Dowling was a devout and humble man. But he also appeared 
to suffer from a lack of self esteem and possibly a touch of self pity, 
wliich did not deter liim from doing a tremendous amount of good, and 
earning the love and respect of his parisliioners and liis fellow Masons. 

I was pleasantly surprised to find fi"om tliis critique tliat Dowling had 
also been a Royal Arch Mason, wliich shows that perhaps my research 
could have gone a bit deeper. 

Bro. Ralph has really piqued my interest in the Tracing Boards 
painted by Bro. Dowling for Colbome and Craig Lodges. I must visit 
them and view these works for myself, preferably in company with 
someone more knowledgeable than I of their content and symbolism. 




by V.W.Bro. G. Reginald Cooper 

Preston-Hespeler Masonic Temple, Cambridge, Ontario 

Wednesday, September 23^^ 1998 


First, let me say, my brethren, that seldom is a man so honoured as 
when he is asked by his peers to bring further light, which should be the 
constant quest of all Masons. And so, how delighted I am to be here witli 
you on this occasion, to share with you a httle Masonic history and a time 
of quiet contemplation. At the outset of any dissertation or indeed of any 
study, one quickly realizes tliat our knowledge of any subject is governed 
by a horizon wliich steadily recedes as we advance toward it. 

I beheve that tliis story is unique as the basis of the parable, because 
tliat's what it is a parable, that is, it is to be found in tlie Old Testament 
as part of the Pentateuch. The telling of religious truths, by means of a 
parabolic expression, is not to be found solely in the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ; This parable is found in the first book of the Old Testament, 
Genesis, in chapter 28. Isaac's second son Jacob seemed to be an 
improbable choice to embody the fulfilment of God's promise to tlie 
Nation Israel-but, it was to be. 

Jacob, it is believed, was bom sometime between the year 2000 and 
1700, before the Common Era. His father, Isaac, seemed an improbable 
choice by God to fulfil his promise to the Israelites to find them a 
promised land. His mother, Rebecca, had been barren for tlie first 19 
years of their life together before she then became pregnant with twins (a 
fact which she deduced without tlie benefit of ultrasound or X-ray), 
telling her husband that tliey were quarrelling in the womb. 

Esau was bom first, and so became the elder. The carrying was so 
upsetting to Rebecca that she cried out to Yahweh, If it is thus, why do I 
live? She souglit an oracle from God, who told her, or at least implanted 
in her mind, that she was carrying the leaders, of two nations. Well, you 
remember tlie story about how Jacob felt cheated in life because liis 
brother Esau, being bom first, had the birtliright to their father's 



possessions, according to Jewish Law. We are still in Genesis, in chapter. 
27 and 28, where Jacob with the help of his mother, tricked his hungry 
brother. Esau would qualify as a Mason on that score alone-being 
hungry I mean. As I say, he talked him into selling the birthright for a 
mess of pottage, wliich was a thick lentil soup, with a smattering of 

Tliis pleased Rebecca as Jacob was her favourite~not only was he to 
become the patriarch of the entire nation of Israel, a promise originally 
given to Abraham and, by inheritance, to Isaac. Jacob's perhaps deceit 
was part of a Divine plan. So he tricked his brother, Esau the Hunter, 
into selling him liis birtlu-ight for a mess of pottage. 

Jacob was a tiller of the soil so they were probably his lentils. To 
shorten tliis episode somewhat, we will conclude with the final part of 
tliis tale which was enacted by sly Jacob when, on the advice of and with 
the help of liis motlier, he donned an animal skin so tliat his fatlier, who 
was almost blind, thought he was indeed giving his blessing to Esau, who 
was a hunter and a woodsman and hence would have had rougher skin 
than Jacob, who was an agrarian. But, do read for yourself-it's all found 
in Genesis 27. 

The story becomes important to us as Masons, as Jacob is urged by 
his mother to leave liis father's home and go to Haram, tlie area lying 
north of Mesopotamia, where her brother Labon lived to find a wife. To 
bring new blood, so to speak, into the greater family. Stopping on his 
way, he rested for the night using some pile of stones for a pillow-no 
wonder he dreamed-but it is fortunate that he did, because the dream 
was about a stairway. It must have been a stairway. How else could 
angels ascend and descend a ladder simultaneously? However, the 
essential element is that it connected the earth to heaven. So, in reality, 
we can have a direct contact with the Great Arcliitect. As Masons, we 
know we can. Do we not speak in our dicta about our daily supplications 
—of course we do. For our Bretliren who have the Qur'an as a V.O.S.L., 
see references to Jacob (Yacob) in Surah 2: 132, 133; also in Surah 6:84, 
Surah 19 to 49 and Surah 21-72. 

So we see that Jacob is and was an important figure of not only the 
Hebrew nation but of the Muslims as well as the Cluistians. 

Jacob's Ladder is, of course, central to the Junior Warden's lecture 
in the first degree. We hear him say The covering of a Masonic temple 
is a canopy of diverse colours even the heavens. We hope to arrive at the 
summit, by the assistance of a ladder, in Scripture called Jacob's Ladder. 
He goes on to say tliat this ladder has many staves, or rounds, but there 



are three principal ones, namely: Faith, Hope and Charity: Faith in the 
G.A.O. T. U., Hope in Salvation and Charity toward all men. 

It is fitting, is it not, that the ladder, a common tool so central to all 
workmen, even today, has been so evident, in an allegorical sense, not 
only in tlie Old Testament but also in our Masonic dicta. 

For a short while tliis evening, I tliought we might make tliis 
beautiful lecture liave a still greater significance and meaning to all of us; 
historically, tliere was great purpose in its inclusion. However, alas, it has 
been deleted or deferred, from many lodge workings (including the 
Grand Lodge of England). For tliose of us of the Cliristian Faitli, tlie 
words Faitli, Hope and Charity (which is a simile for Love), are repeated 
by Paul, in liis letter to the church, in Corinthians chapter. 13:12,13: 

For now we see, as looking through a glass darkly, but then 

face to face. I shall know him as I am known, " or, more 

literally, "I shall know him as I know myself. 

And now abidetli Faitli, Hope and Charity, tlie greatest of wliich is 
Charity, or as I have said Love. 

If, as we say. Masonry is progressive science, what better symbol do 
we need Uian a ladder. You will remember that while tlie ladder rests on 
the floor of tlie Lodge, symbolically it is moved, to rest on tlie V.O.S.L.. 
It is tlie pathway to eternal life, as it was in Jacob's dream For he saw 
angels ascending and descending, symbolically. You will recall tlien 
when the Junior Warden, in his beautiful lecture, turns the candidate's 
attention to the ladder, and says This ladder rests on the Volume of the 
Sacred Law, where it is indeed placed as I have said earlier in this 

It is, metaphorically speaking, the pathway to eternal life. Ergo, our 
ladder rests firmly on the V.O.S.L. By the doctrines contained therein, 
we are led to believe in the wise dispensations of a divine providence. It 
follows then, that as we ascend this ladder, figuratively speaking, we 
arrive at the summit—an ethereal mansion, veiled from human eyes by 
the starry firmament. It is a veritable fact, that as we ascend a ladder, 
literally, so greater tlie extent of our horizon becomes, while tlie ordinary 
or mundane foreground disappears from our view. 

Are there hidden truths to be found in these passages? There are, I 
believe, as expressed by our ancient bretliren. Albert G. Mackie, tliat 
great Masonic expositor, writing in the late 19th century, says that the 
ladder, Masonically speaking, had seven rounds of note: Well, of course, 
it still does. They are Faith, Hope and Charity, the sacred ones, and the 
cardinal, or ordinary, ones of Temperance, Fortitude, Justice and 



Prudence, being added to tlie former tliree. Furtlier, he says that tlie latter 
four, the cardinal ones, were deleted as a matter of convenience. I, 
however, am inclined to believe that some New Testament cleric, while 
acting as an important Mason, removed them to lend emphasis to the 
sacred— Faith, Hope and Charity. So be it. 

Happily, tliey are still with us, and are represented of course by the 
four adorning tassels, on tlie comers of our Lodge Room and our referred 
to, in the Junior Warden's lecture. These tassels by tlie way were once 
part of the Mosaic pavement. Indeed, in the East Toronto Temple where 
I first saw light and, I dare say, in others, the tassels are still evident as 
part of the pavement. 

If we had no more in our V.O.S.L. tlian tliis, indeed no more in 
Masonry than this: Faith in the Great Architect, Hope of Salvation, and 
Charity or Love Toward All, as expressed in his love for us. Comple- 
ented by our duties as Masons to love all men, of every race, of every 
colour, of every clime. Having only tliis, we would be rich indeed. 

This, my Bretliren, is tlie great unique and signal call to all Masons. 
Let us never forget it We need, I tliink, to constantly remind ourselves 
that the central theme of Masonry is the enriching of the human spirit. 
To be advancing this spirit, we need only to listen to the words of the 
Junior Warden's lecture. Remember that the distinguishing 
characteristics of a Free and Accepted Mason are Virtue, Honour and 
Mercy, leading us to Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. We forget these 
things to our peril, neglect any of tliese principles to our detriment. I 
suggest that, without them. Masonry is ordinary and not the exemplary 
movement of which we are— of wliich we should-be proud to call 
ourselves members. 

In another lecture, still aliead, in the M.M. degree the spirit of which 
I have spoken is highhghted. I speak of Ecclesiastes orated as adjimctive, 
to the raising from the dead emblematically, as our brother in the place 
of tlie G.M. Hiram Abif The orator concludes in this recitation by saying 
that body retumetli to the earth from wliich it came. Genesis 2:7 and 19, 
and the spirit unto God who gave it (Ecclesiastes 12:7). 

Who is this fellow Cooper anyway— lecturing, sermonizing to us. If 
it sounds that way, I make no apology. 

Well, I have dwelt, perhaps unduly, with tlie Christian reference to 
the ladder but tliis symbol is to be found, as I have said, in many otlier 
sacred writings. The number seven is uniquely important, in an archi- 
tectural sense, to the builders art; and to our present Masonic dicta. Does 
not seven make it perfect? 



Similarly, you can discover in the mysteries of Brahma and among 
the Cabalists, the mention of the ladder. The Hebrew word for ladder is 
Sinai, an important word in tlie Middle East today. 

Then we find, according to Mackie, who writes of the Persian 
Mysteries of Mitliras, tliat tliere was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage 
through them being symbolical of the soul's approach to Nirvana - 
perfection. Tliese rounds, were called gates and the candidate was made 
to pass through seven dark and winding caverns. The process of which 
was called the ascent to perfection. These rounds, or staves, were made 
of metal and each of increasing purity, from lead to quicksilver, copper, 
tin, iron, silver through to the seventh, gold. 

Continuing for a moment or two in this mein, we find, writes 
Mackie, in the higher reaches of Masonry, the Ladder of Kadoshe, that 
this ladder was represented by seven steps, namely: Justice, Equity, 
Kindness, Good Faith, Honour, Patience and Intelligence. Other orders 
refer to the Ladder as tlie tree of life. I have not explored them in tliis 
lecture because I find lots of meat, so to speak, in Craft Masonry. 

I sometimes deplore of the seeming singular representation of the 
builders of the early 16th century as Stone Masons. True, there was a 
predominance of workers in stone, then as tliere is now, but tlie other 
trades also demonstrated their skills in creating ornamentation: Wood 
carvers, silversmiths, goldsmiths, glaziers, potterers and weavers. All of 
these were craftsmen every bit as much as stone workers. Read of the 
work of tliese other craftsmen, builders of Temple of King Solomon, 1st 
Kings chapter. 6:16 where we find the words, and I paraphrase, the walls 
inside were made of cedar . . . Read on for more evidence of carpentry 
and metal work— verse 2\ . . .he overlaid the walls with gold .... 

Metalwork— If, as we say. Masonry is a progressive science, what 
better symbol do we need tlian the ladder? Indeed, the builders of ancient 
days, as well as tliose of today, would be lost, witliout tlie ladder. No 
builder could build even a relatively simple structure as a house without 
using the ladder. Is it not interesting tliat once a foundation is in place, 
the Masons and all of tlie other craftsmen then place tlieir ladders upon 
it so as to elevate themselves as they raise the superstructure and thus 
complete the edifice? 

Some, as I liave said, use tlie ladder as a stepping stone to follow our 
sublime destiny, of the enhancing of the spirit. My brethren, becoming 
a Mason is not a destination, no, but a launching platform from wliich we 
are better able to serve our fellowman. 

In this day, when we wonder why our Craft is diminishing in 



numbers, might we not look to what made our Craft strong, at least in 
numbers, a decade or two ago? Yet, it also seems correct to ask in regards 
to those Masons, who were made in the 60s and 70s, where are they now? 
The cost of living, perliaps our tastes, wliich pervade our very being, were 
not so painfully evident tlien, as tliey are today. Those who remain, in tlie 
main are only those active P.M.s who are the stay of our Lodges of today. 

Maybe in the face of our social events, our hurrying and scurrying 
around the periphery of our Lodges, we have forgotten to emphasize 
those very steps of the ladder which we hold so dearly and which, after 
all, are the basis of our very existence as Masons. 

Some here toniglit may say, he has propounded Jacob and his ladder 
to tlie extreme. I make no apology for this, for I believe that in exploring 
whence we came, to tlie ftillest of deptlis as we can muster, we serve the 
Craft well. 

The most important and salient points of Masonry as I see it are 
contained in Uie words that we attach to those very staves or rounds of 
which we are all familiar, and to the adjunct import of our four tassels. 

In another study I have researched, entitled Unworthy Members, I 
have quoted that Some men, though in the Temple, are not of the Temple, 
they are atnong us but not with us, they belong to our household but they 
are not of our Faith. We have sought to teach them but thy will not be 
instructed, seeing they have not received, hearing they have not 
understood, the symbolic lessons of wisdom are communicated. The fault 
lies not with us, we have given, but they have not received. (The above 
is a direct quotation of course from Mackie and McLennan). 

As I ponder tlie truth, of these words, today we must, I think labour 
to acliieve tlie trutli, wliich after all, is the beginning of wisdom. Wisdom 
never stands still, nor does accepted truth, which is always altered by 
discovery. Brethren, the world is not as our forefathers believed. 

The Holy Bible (King James Version) 
Mackie and McLelleand, Volume No. 1 
An Encyclopedia ofMasomy, Arthur Edward Waite 
Wlio's Who in the Bible, Readers Digest Edition, 1994 
The Book of the Work, Grand Lodge of Canada in Ontario 



REVIEW by R.W.Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos 

When asked to review Bro. Cooper's paper, my first thought was: 
Great . . . perhaps I may discover why I was christened Jacob. Since I 
was firstborn, I did not have to deceive my father for my birthright, and 
I knew my mother wished for me great success even if I had to climb a 
ladder to obtain it. But now Bro. Cooper is telling me there are several 
rungs or rounds that must be reached on my upward journey. Other 
authors''^'^ say that some are spiritual and some are material. 

When a Mason tliinks about Jacob's Ladder in the Biblical sense he 
visualizes, either from printed references or from the many framed 
lithographs seen gracing the walls of lodge halls and anterooms, a 
slightly tapered ladder reacliing from the terrestrial earth tluough the 
glowing clouds and stany fimiament to tlie celestial heavens above; and, 
as we figuratively chmb upward, angels are ascending and descending to 
encourage us along and pick us up when we are down. Our speaker 
reminds us that as we ascend the ladder of life we elevate ourselves from 
a narrow, ordinary materialistic focus to a more lofty spiritual horizon. 

Steinmetz^ says tliat the present interpretation of the three principal 
rounds (in the lecture in the first degree) is not in conformity with 
ancient teaching, which attributes seven rounds to the ladder. Not 
attempting to debate tlie correctness of the statement, Bro. Cooper wisely 
proceeds to explain tlie three theological virtues as Faith, Hope and 
Charity (or Love), and tlien picks up tlie tread from Albert G. Mackie, 
the Masonic scholar of the 19**^ Century, who explains the other four 
virtues as cardinal from the Latin cardinal is meaning essential. 

Allen Roberts' in his book The Craft and Its Symbols says of the four 
cardinal virtues that Temperance symbolizes restraint, Fortitude 
symbolizes courage. Prudence is a symbol of wisdom, and Justice, as it 
is practiced Masonically, symbolizes equality. Justice, according to 
Roberts is usually pictured as a blindfolded woman holding scales and a 
sword. But tliis is far removed from wliat Masonic Justice should be. Man 
should govern liis own actions, openly and not blindfolded. His conduct 
toward others should not be aggressive. He should do what he does 
because he really wants to, not because he is forced to. The Justice of a 
Freemason should be unselfish and self-sacrificing. 

E. R. Jolmston^ in his book Masonry Defined— A Liberal Masonic 
Education argues tliat Jacob's Ladder was not an original symbol and 
tliat it is not mentioned in any of the rituals of the last century. Nor even 
by Hutchinson in his lecture on the Nature of The Lodge where he speaks 
of tlie covering of tlie lodge but says notliing of the means of reacliing it. 



Jacob's Ladder is said to liave been introduced by Dunckerley (appointed 
Provincial Grand Master of Hampshire in 1767). 

Bro. Cooper reminds us that, as the operative Masons and all of tlie 
other craftsmen placed their ladders so as to elevate themselves in order 
to raise tlie superstructure to complete the edifice. In like manner, others 
such as firemen and sailors like ascending and descending angels of 
mercy, perform their allotted tasks in tlie courageous rescues of hmnan 
life. Like ancient mariners who climbed the rigging of tlieir tall ships to 
see beyond tlie rougli seas below shouting instructions to steer tlie vessel 
through troubled waters to calm seas ahead, so ought we in a material 
and spiritual vein, ascend the sunbeams of life to sliine as a guide giving 
light and instructions to all in need. 

1 -Allen E. Roberts The Craft and Its Symbols. Macoy 
Publishing and Masonic Supply Inc., 1974. 
2 -George H. Steimnetz Freemasonry, Its Hidden Meaning. 
Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Inc., 1948 
3-E. R. Johnston 32° Masonry Define d--A Liberal Masonic 
Education. National Masonic Press, 1930. 



We have been notified of the following members of 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730G.R.C. 

Who have Passed to the Grand Lodge Above 

(since previous publication of names of our deceased) 


Oak Ridge Lodge No. 708 G.RC, London 

September 9, 1998 

W.Bro. JACK DALE, Cambridge 

Concord Lodge No. 722 G.R.C., Cambridge 
September 6, 1998 


Goodwood Lodge No. 159 G.RC, Richmond 

March 15, 1998 


Waverley Lodge No. 361 G.RC, Guelph 

August 4, 1998 


Consecon Lodge No. 50 G.R.C., Consecon 

December 17, 1997 


Credit Lodge No. 219 G.R.C., Georgetown 

June 6, 1998 

We give thanks for the privilege of knowing them 
and sharing in their lives 




IVe have been notified of the following members of 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730G.R.C. 

Who have Passed to the Grand Lodge Above 

(since previous publication of names of our deceased) 


Stevenson Lodge No. 218 G.R.C., Toronto 

April 30, 1998 


Delta Lodge No. 634 G.R.C., Aurora 

May 8, 1998 


y^^lUam Mercer Wilson Medal Holder 

Bancroft Lodge No. 482 G.R.C., Bancroft 

May 31, 1998 


Richardson Lodge No. 136 G.R*C., Stouffville 

February 17, 1998 

Wellington Square Lodge No. 725 G.RC, Burlington 

January 31, 1997 

R.W.Bro. ROY SHAW SPARROW, Oliver, B.C. 

Wilmot Lodge No. 318 G.RC, Baden 

September 10, 1998 

We give thanks for the privilege of knowing them 
and sharing in their lives 


Jnstilutfit: Wtpltmbn 1\, 1077 
(ConBltl]ilf&: ^rplrmbfr 23. 197H 


Worshipfbl Master W.Bro. Gordon L. Finbow 705) 789-0333 

Immediate Past Master V. W.Bro. George A. Napper 519) 886-9963 

Senior Warden RW.Bro. P. Raymond Borland 519) 579-5075 

Junior Warden RW.Bro. Donald L. Cosens 519) 631-4529 

Chaplain RW.Bro. R. Cerwyn Davies 416) 267-1967 

Treasurer RW.Bro. Duncan J. McFadgen 905) 634-7559 

Secretary V. W.Bro. Samuel Forsythe 905) 831-2076 

Assistant Secretary V. W.Bro. George F. Moore 519) 846-9100 

Senior Deacon RW.Bro. William C. Thompson 416) 261-8646 

Junior Deacon RW.Bro. Donald A. Campbell 905) 471-8641 

Director of Ceremonies . . . RW.Bro. Larry J. Hostine 519) 825-7197 

Inner Guard RW.Bro. Carl M. Miller 905) 728-8638 

Senior Steward RW.Bro. John H. Hough 905) 875-4433 

Junior Steward W.Bro. Michael P. Govier 519) 743-1183 

Organist V. W.Bro. Donald E. Schatz 705) 292-7414 

Tyler W.Bro. Ebrahim Washington 416) 281-3464 

Historian W.Bro. David G. Fletcher 519) 753-3206 

Auditors RW.Bro. Kenneth G. Bartlett 519) 571-0613 

RW.Bro. M. Keith McLean 905) 632-6855 


Marketiiig/Liaskas Ptgs./Chips RW.Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 4 1 6) 447^ 1 52 

Proceedings Editor W.Bro. John F. Sutherland 519) 537-2927 

Masonic Information V. W.Bro. Donald B. Kaufman 519) 893-3526 

Finance RW.Bro. Albert A. Barker 519) 756-0684 

Black Creek Masonic Heritage RW.Bro. E .J. Bums Anderson 416) 247-7967 
William J. Dunlop Award . . V. W.Bro. Donald B. Kaufman 519) 893-3526 

Masonic Heritage Corporation RW.Bro. Jacob Pos 519) 821-4995 

Regional Western Ontario RW.Bro. Arthur S. Rake 519) 782-3897 

Liaison Central/Northern . . . RW.Bro. Glenn H. Gilpin 705) 466-2185 
Chairmen Eastern Ontario . . . RW.Bro. Leonard Harrison 705) 750-1309 




1977 R.W.Bro. Jacob Pes 

1978 RW.Bro. Jacob Pos 

1979 R.W.Bro. Keith R. A. Flynn 

1980 R.W.Bro. Donald G. S. Grinton 

1981 M.W.Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw 

1982 V.W.Bro. George E. Zwicker 

1983 R.W.Bro. Balfour LeGresley 

1984 M.W.Bro. David C. Bradley 

1985 M.W.Bro. C. Edwin Drew 

1986 R.W.Bro. Robert S. Throop 

1987 RW.Bro. Albert A. Barker 

1988 R.W.Bro. Edsel C. Steen 

1989 R.W.Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 

1990 V.W.Bro. Donald B. Kaufman 

1991 R.W.Bro. Wilfred T. Greenhough* 

1992 RW.Bro. Frank G. Dunn 

1993 W.Bro. Stephen H. Maizels 

1994 W.Bro. David G. Fletcher 

1995 R. W.Bro. Kenneth L. Whiting 

1996 R.W.Bro. Larry J. Hostine 

1997 V.W.Bro. George A. Napper 

* Deceased